Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Comparative Evaluation of Polyclonal Antibodies in the Characterization of Nematocyst Proteins from Australian Irukandji and Chironex fleckeri Species

Version 1 : Received: 28 August 2018 / Approved: 29 August 2018 / Online: 29 August 2018 (05:23:55 CEST)

How to cite: Ávila Soria, G.; Gershwin, L.; Winkel, K.D.; Burnell, J.N. Comparative Evaluation of Polyclonal Antibodies in the Characterization of Nematocyst Proteins from Australian Irukandji and Chironex fleckeri Species. Preprints 2018, 2018080481 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201808.0481.v1). Ávila Soria, G.; Gershwin, L.; Winkel, K.D.; Burnell, J.N. Comparative Evaluation of Polyclonal Antibodies in the Characterization of Nematocyst Proteins from Australian Irukandji and Chironex fleckeri Species. Preprints 2018, 2018080481 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201808.0481.v1).

Abstract

Carukia barnesi (Cb), Malo kingi (Mk) and Chironex fleckeri (Cf) are dangerous Australian box jellyfish species that provoke distinct and not well understood envenomation syndromes. Specifically, Cb and Mk are small, rare and able to induce a systemic syndrome of generalised muscle pain and catecholamine excess termed “Irukandji syndrome”; Cf has been widely regarded as one of the most venomous organisms in the animal kingdom causing severe sting site pain combined with potentially lethal cardiotoxicity. Building on past studies of major chirodropid and carybdeid species venoms, this study compared the utility of various cubozoan specific antibody reagents to better define the relationships between venom proteins from both exemplar Irukandji species (Cb and Mk) and the archetype C. fleckeri box jellyfish. With the aid of commercial ovine derived Cf-specific antivenom, mouse antibodies reactive to Cb and Mk and rabbit antibodies specific to two Cf toxins (CfTX-1 and 2), as well as human sera, the cross-reactivity of jellyfish species-specific polyclonal antibodies against these three cubozoan venoms was investigated. Immunoblot assays revealed distinc levels of immune recognition across the three species, indicating that Mk specific reagents may bind both Irukandji and Cf venoms. Irukandji venom appears to be antigenic with the exception of a few proteins in the range of 43/46 kDa maybe homologous to CfTX-1 and 2. The implications of such antibody binding for future antivenom development require further investigation.

Subject Areas

Irukandji syndrome; box jellyfish; CSL antivenom; nematocyst extracts; antigenicity; human sera; human antibodies

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