ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0333.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; pregnancy; trophoblasts; interactome; placenta
Online: 21 May 2020 (03:38:05 CEST)
COVID-19 is a rapidly evolving medical emergency that has drawn global attention, unprecedented in any disease of its kind in recent times. The magnitude of the health crisis emerging from this pandemic has overwhelmed health care workers worldwide and called in for extraordinary measures to contain this virus. A simple Pubmed query on “COVID-19” returned with 12214 articles (as on May 17th, 2020), published just within a few months. A detailed survey revealed around 250 clinical reports, 8 clinical trials, 9 meta-analyses, and 906 reviews that were published during this time span. Combining the strings “COVID-19 and Pregnancy” yielded a total of 132 reports while querying “COVID-19 and Placenta” returned with just 11 articles Even taking into considerations that few materials are in the PrePrint Server, we still have a gross under-representation of studies addressing the effect of this disease on pregnancy outcome and maternal & child health. An essential aspect of a successful pregnancy is proper placentation, where transiently invasive placental trophoblast cells invade the maternal endometrium to establish a functional feto-maternal communication. Based on the elegant study by David. E. Gordon, et al. published in Nature (April 30, 2020), which identified 332 human host proteins interacting with SARS-nCoV2 using an affinity-based purification, we interrogated several gene expression data sets available at NCBI-GEO related to trophoblast invasion and differentiation. Both of these processes are indispensable for placentation and fetal survival. Our analysis showed several overlaps with the interactome proteins implying that SARS-CoV-2 infection can affect several proteins, which are crucial for trophoblasts function. GeneMANIA and STRING based functional analysis further revealed that several of that SARS-CoV-2 interacting trophoblast proteins as a hub for the protein-protein interaction network. Our study thus elucidates the possible effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on placenta formation and pregnancy outcome.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0388.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: proximity labeling; spatial omics; functional proteomics; interactome mapping; electrophile signaling
Online: 30 May 2022 (06:13:07 CEST)
If one considers chemical-biology toolsets that have had the greatest impact on numerous fields of life sciences over the most recent years, proximity-labeling tools, such as APEX, and Bio-ID arguably lead the way. This article reflects upon the current state-of-the-art and discusses key limitations underlying these emerging approaches, in particular, the limited functional knowledge they provide in understanding local proteomes / interactomes. This limitation is directly linked to the use of non-biologically- or non-pharmaceutically-relevant reactive intermediates in the course of covalently labeling the local proteomes. As such, these methods cannot report on specific functions of localized protein players, nor can they scrutinize whether the specific functions of such proteins/interactomes can be directly manipulated by pharmacologically-relevant small-molecule ligands. The latest data hint that precision localized electrophile delivery concept ushers a means to address this limitation with high spatiotemporal resolution, and ultimately, in relevant live animals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0663.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; interactome; ciliary-flagellar dysfunction; infertility; pathogenicity
Online: 25 December 2020 (13:18:03 CET)
Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). There is sufficient experimental evidence to confirm that SARS-CoV-2 infection produces states of ciliary and flagellar dysfunction. However, these studies are unable to explain the observed effects molecularly, because they lack a sufficient understanding of the interaction between human proteins and virus proteins. Using the physical-chemical study of the human interactome in interaction with the SARS-CoV-2 proteome, we found evidence of interactions to explain the experimental effects from a molecular perspective. We found that ten viral proteins interact with key components in the maintenance of the molecular structure of axoneme. Additionally, we evaluated the pulmonary and extrapulmonary pathogenesis of COVID-19 from the point of view of ciliary dysfunction, and warned about other possible complications such as episodes of transient infertility that, due to the limitations of our work, would need verification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0017.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: protein-protein interactions; interactome; congenital heart disease; developmental disorder; hypoplastic left heart syndrome; web application
Online: 1 February 2022 (16:00:59 CET)
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a severe congenital heart disease (CHD) affecting 1 in 5,000 newborns. We constructed the interactome of 74 HLHS-associated genes identified from a large-scale mouse mutagenesis screen, augmenting it with 408 novel protein-protein interactions (PPIs) using our High-precision Protein-Protein Interaction Prediction (HiPPIP) model. The interactome is available on a webserver with advanced search capabilities (http://severus.dbmi.pitt.edu/wiki-HLHS). 364 genes including 73 novel interactors were differentially regulated in tissues/iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes of HLHS patients. Novel PPIs facilitated the identification of TOR signaling and endoplasmic reticulum stress modules. 60.5% of the interactome consisted of housekeeping genes that may harbor large-effect mutations and drive HLHS etiology but show limited transmission. Network proximity of diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and liver carcinoma-associated genes to HLHS genes suggested a mechanistic basis for their comorbidity with HLHS. Interactome genes showed tissue-specificity for sites of extracardiac anomalies (placenta, liver and brain). The HLHS interactome shared significant overlaps with the interactomes of ciliopathy and microcephaly-associated genes, with the shared genes respectively enriched for genes involved in intellectual disability and/or developmental delay, and neuronal death pathways. This supported the increased burden of ciliopathy variants and prevalence of neurological abnormalities observed among HLHS patients with developmental delay and microcephaly respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0343.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: 14-3-3; interactome; protein-protein interaction; mitochondria; metabolism; protein quality control; homeostasis; left ventricule; network
Online: 18 August 2022 (10:54:49 CEST)
Rationale: The 14-3-3 protein family is known to interact with many proteins in non-cardiac cell types to regulate multiple signaling pathways, particularly those relating to energy and protein homeostasis; and the 14-3-3 network is a therapeutic target of critical metabolic and proteostatic signaling in cancer and neurological diseases. Although the heart is critically sensitive to nutrient and energy alterations, and multiple signaling pathways coordinate to maintain the cardiac cell homeostasis, neither the structure of cardiac 14-3-3 protein interactome, nor potential functional roles of 14-3-3 protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in heart has been explored. Objective: To establish the comprehensive landscape and characterize the functional role of cardiac 14-3-3 PPIs. Methods and Results: We evaluated both RNA expression and protein abundance of 14-3-3 isoforms in mouse heart, followed by co-immunoprecipitation of 14-3-3 proteins and mass spectrometry in left ventricle. We identified 52 proteins comprising the cardiac 14-3-3 interactome. Multiple bioinformatic analyses indicated that more than half of the proteins bound to 14-3-3 are related to mitochondria; and the deduced functions of the mitochondrial 14-3-3 network are to regulate cardiac ATP production via interactions with mitochondrial inner membrane proteins, especially those in mitochondrial complex I. Binding to ribosomal proteins, 14-3-3 proteins likely coordinate protein synthesis and protein quality control. Localizations of 14-3-3 proteins to mitochondria and ribosome were validated via immunofluorescence assays. The deduced function of cardiac 14-3-3 PPIs is to regulate cardiac metabolic homeostasis and proteostasis. Conclusions: Thus, the cardiac 14-3-3 interactome may be a potential therapeutic target in cardiovascular metabolic and proteostatic disease states, as it already is in cancer therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0749.v2
Subject: Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 infection; Interleukin 6; NFB; Nsp5; Cox2; SARS-CoV-2 interactome; Nonlinear dynamics of inflammation
Online: 15 March 2021 (12:18:02 CET)
In the present work we propose a dynamical mathematical model of the lung cells inflammation process in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this scenario the main protease Nsp5 enhances the inflammatory process, increasing the levels of NF kB, IL-6, Cox2, and PGE2 with respect to a reference state without the virus. In presence of the virus the translation rates of NF kB and IkB arise to a high constant value, and when the translation rate of IL-6 also increases above the threshold value of 7 pg mL-1 s-1 the model predicts a persistent over stimulated immune state with high levels of the cytokine IL-6. Our model shows how such over stimulated immune state becomes autonomous of the signals from other immune cells such as macrophages and lymphocytes, and does not shut down by itself. We also show that in the context of the dynamical model presented here, Dexamethasone or Nimesulide have little effect on such inflammation state of the infected lung cell, and the only form to suppress it is with the inhibition of the activity of the viral protein Nsp5.To that end, our model suggest that drugs like Saquinavir may be useful. In this form, our model suggests that Nsp5 is effectively a central node underlying the severe acute lung inflammation during SARS-CoV-2 infection. The persistent production of IL-6 by lung cells can be one of the causes of the cytokine storm observed in critical patients with COVID19. Nsp5 seems to be the switch to start inflammation, the consequent overproduction of the ACE2 receptor, and an important underlying cause of the most severe cases of COVID19.