ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0511.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: ductile fracture, ductile fracture mechanisms, critical effective plastic strain, stress triaxiality, Lode angle
Online: 26 September 2018 (13:44:38 CEST)
In this paper, the ductile fracture mechanism is discussed. The results of the numerical and experimental analyses are used to estimate of the onset of the crack front growth . It is assumed that the ductile fracture in front of the crack starts at the location along the crack front where the accumulated effective plastic strain reaches a critical value. It is also assumed that the critical effective plastic strain depends on the stress triaxiality and the Lode angle. The experimental programme was performed using five different specimen geometries, three different materials and three different temperatures of +20°C, -20°C and -50°C. Using the experimental data and the results of the finite element computations, the critical effective plastic strains are determined for each material and each temperature. However, before the critical effective plastic strain is determined, a careful calibration of the stress–strain curves was performed after modification of the Bai–Wierzbicki procedure. Finally, by analysing the experimental results recorded during the interrupted fracture tests and scanning microscopy observations, the research hypothesis is verified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0083.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: oxide metallurgy; impact toughness; metallographic structure; inclusion; ductile-brittle transition temperature
Online: 5 July 2018 (07:47:04 CEST)
The welding performance of shipbuilding steel under large heat input could be improved greatly by the Mg addition to the steel, but the impact toughness of the HAZ is not stable. According to the three different thickness steel plates obtained in the industrial experiment, the large heat input welding was carried out by different heat input, and the impact toughness analysis, impact fracture analysis, metallographic microstructure analysis and inclusions analysis were carried out. The results showed that, the HAZ of three kinds of thickness plates induced a lot of IAF, with Mg addition, the inclusion dimension had been reduced effectively, and the IAF induced ability of the inclusions had also been improved. The difference of HAZ impact toughness with different welding heat input and different impact temperature is significant, in consideration of the influence of welding heat input and metallographic microstructure on impact toughness of HAZ, the welding heat load had far greater effect than metallographic microstructure on ductile-brittle transition temperature. At the same time, if the original metallographic microstructure of steel was coarse, the pinning effect of the inclusions would be reduced significantly, and the microstructure of HAZ would be coarsened and the impact toughness of HAZ would be decreased, so there is a certain matching relationship between the metallographic microstructure and the inclusion dimension.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0090.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: austempered ductile iron; austempering parameters; microstructure; mechanical properties; salt bath agitation
Online: 13 October 2017 (15:44:58 CEST)
In this paper the influence of austempering temperature and salt bath agitation on the final microstructure and mechanical properties of the ferritic ductile iron were studied. 17 samples had been subjected to different heat treatment parameters. Different microstructures were recorded upon the completion of the tests. From the obtained micro images, it is obvious that both the austempering temperature and salt bath agitation affect the final microstructure of the austempered ductile iron. Lower austempering temperatures and salt bath agitation produce more ausferrite in the microstructure, hence the harder and tougher phases are present. This was confirmed with hardness and toughness test of the 17 heat-treated samples. Lower austempering temperatures give more ausferrite phase and therefore higher hardness, but hardness decreases with increasing austempering temperatures. Toughness rises with rising austempering temperatures, but drops significantly with temperatures above 395°C because of the final microstructure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0629.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: phase-field; multiphase-field; grey cast iron; brittle fracture; ductile fracture; anisotropic fracture
Online: 28 July 2021 (12:16:13 CEST)
In this work, a small-strain phase-field model is presented, which is able to predict crack propagation in systems with anisotropic brittle and ductile constituents. To model the anisotropic brittle crack propagation, an anisotropic critical energy release rate is used. The brittle constituents behave linear-elastically, in a transversely isotropic manner. Ductile crack growth is realised by a special crack degradation function, depending on the accumulated plastic strain, which is calculated by following the J2-plasticity theory. The mechanical jump conditions are applied in solid-solid phase transition regions. The influence of the relevant model parameters on a crack, propagating through a planar brittle-ductile interface, and furthermore a crack developing in a domain with a single anisotropic brittle ellipsoid, embedded in a ductile matrix, is investigated. We demonstrate that important properties, concerning the mechanical behaviour of grey cast iron, such as the favoured growth of cracks along the graphite lamellae and the tension-compression load asymmetry of the stress-strain response, are covered by the model. The behaviour is analysed on basis of a simulation domain consisting of three differently oriented elliptical inclusions, embedded in a ductile matrix, which is subjected to tensile and compressive load. The used material parameters correspond to graphite lamellae and pearlite.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0377.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Global salt cycle; Wilson cycle; Giant salt accumulations; Subduction; Rifting; Mantle; upwelling; Hydrated mantle; Hydrothermal salt expulsion; Hydrothermal circulation; Basin subsidence; Supercritical fluids; Phase separation; Saline brine; Salt diapir; Bedded salts; Inherited composition; Inherited structures; Lower crustal body; Electrical conductivity; Magnetotelluric method; Seismic velocity; Brittle-ductile behaviour; Continental crust formation; Oceanic crust formation; Hydration of oceanic crust; Serpentinization; Volcanism; Mineral solubility.
Online: 16 July 2021 (14:34:42 CEST)
The main objective of this communication is to describe the ‘Global Salt Cycle’. Giant salt accumulations are commonly found along continental margins of former rifts. The first stage in the accumulation process is saturation of newly formed oceanic crust with seawater. Final mobilisation and accumulation of the salts occurs during rifting, localised in the vicinity of relict subduction zones. Oceanic crust is created along the spreading ridges in the deep oceans of the Earth. It exchanges mass and energy with seawater in hydrothermal circulation cells that penetrate deep into the new and fractured crust. Water-rock interactions include the formation of hydrated and hydroxylated minerals, e.g., serpentinites and clay minerals. By incorporating hydroxyl groups and water in their crystal lattices, the salinity of remaining brines increases. Subduction of oceanic crust and serpentinised lithosphere transports water, hydrated minerals, and marine salts deep into the crust and mantle. Upon pressurisation and heating of the subducting slab, different parts of this water are expelled at different depths/temperatures. The resulting fluids will contain salts brought in with the slab, as well as new salts formed by water-rock interaction. The combination of elevated pressures and temperatures, water, salinity, and CO2, create permeability in the normally impermeable, peridotitic mantle, by altering the fluid-rock dihedral angles of mineral grains. This P/T-determined intergranular permeability allows ascent of saline fluids, under lithostatic pressure, within the mantle wedge, or the slab itself. The fluids produce a mechanically weakened and buoyant zone within the mantle wedge due to high pore pressure between mineral grains and reduced mantle density. During the lifetime of a subduction zone, a substantial accumulation of saline fluids within the mantle wedge and crust, is evident. Deep, fluid reservoirs accumulate between the subduction trench and the volcanic front. They may exist for hundreds of millions of years, even after the extinction of the subduction zone. Saline fluids may escape to the surface along deep faults, due to overfilling of available pores/fractures. Fluids within the mantle wedge may form rock melts or exist as supercritical, mineral rich fluids. The combination of reduced pressure due to rifting, and a saline and buoyant mantle, creates a mantle circulation that brings the accumulated, saline fluids, to crustal levels. Salts will therefore accumulate during initial stages of rifting as a result of massive fluid expulsion, phase change and boiling of mantle fluids. No extra energy is required to produce phase change and boiling. The result is formation of solid salts or dense brines/slurries invading fractured crustal rocks, or escaping to the surface/seabed. This process may take place both before and after the sea has invaded a continental rift.