ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0153.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: antioxidant system; chilling stress; mineral homeostasis; nitric oxide; oxidative stress; rice
Online: 15 January 2020 (12:32:41 CET)
Being a chilling-sensitive staple crop, rice (Oryza sativa L.) is vulnerable to climate change. The competence of rice to withstand chilling stress should, therefore, be enhanced through technological tools. The present study employed chemical intervention like application of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as nitric oxide (NO) donor and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms of NO-mediated chilling tolerance in rice. At germination stage, germination indicators were interrupted by chilling stress (5.0 ± 1.0°C for 8 h day‒1), while pretreatment with 100 μM SNP markedly improved the indicators. At seedling stage (14-day-old), chilling stress caused stunted growth with visible toxicity along with alteration of biochemical markers, for example, increase in oxidative stress markers (superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and malondialdehyde) and osmolytes (total soluble sugar; proline and soluble protein content, SPC), and decrease in chlorophyll (Chl), relative water content (RWC), and antioxidants. However, NO application attenuated toxicity symptoms with improving growth performance which might be attributed to enhanced activities of antioxidants, mineral contents, Chl, RWC and SPC. Furthermore, principal component analysis indicated that water imbalance and increased oxidative damage were the main contributors to chilling injury, whereas NO-mediated mineral homeostasis and antioxidant defense were the critical determinants for chilling tolerance in rice. Collectively, our findings revealed that NO protects against chilling stress through valorizing cellular defense mechanisms, suggesting that exogenous application of NO could be a potential tool to evolve cold tolerance as well as climate resilience in rice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0075.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: chilling injury; mealiness; metabolomics; lipidomics; biomarker
Online: 5 March 2020 (02:42:26 CET)
Peach is the third most important temperate fruit crop considering fruit production and harvested area in the world. Exporting peaches represents a challenge due to the long-distance export markets. This requires fruit to be placed in cold storage for a long time, which can induce a physiological disorder known as chilling injury (CI). The main symptom of CI is mealiness which is perceived as non-juicy fruit by consumers. The purpose of this work was to identify and compare the metabolic and lipid profile between two siblings from a contrasting population for juice content, at harvest and after 30 days at 0°C. A total of 119 metabolites and 189 lipids were identified, which showed significant differences of abundance including mainly in amino acids, sugars and lipids. Our results indicate that some of the top metabolites and lipids could be used as biomarkers associated with mealiness at harvest and after cold storage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0191.v1
Online: 13 January 2022 (13:56:33 CET)
The present research intents to study the evolution of the skin fatty acids and physiological disorders through cold storage in ‘Golden Delicious’ apples treated with 1-MCP and calcium. Harvested fruit were treated with calcium chloride (Ca), 1-MCP (MCP), Ca+MCP or no treatment (control) then subjected to cold storage at 0.5 ºC for 6 months. Fatty acids composition, Malondialdehyde (MDA) and the physiological disorders bitter pit (BP), superficial scald and diffuse skin browning (DSB) were measured at harvest and after storage plus 7 days shelf-life at room temperature ≈22 ºC. Palmitic acid decreased and linoleic acid increased through time, while oleic and stearic acids had few changes. Unsaturated/saturated fatty acids and MDA increased through time, despite Ca and Ca+MCP were related to lower MDA and lower BP and rotten fruit, after cold storage and shelf-life. In those treatments, the unsaturated/saturated fatty acids were higher, mainly due to higher linoleic acid and lower palmitic acids. Further research is needed to clarify the changes in membrane properties and the effect of some treatments in response to chilling injury through storage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0456.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: chilling injury; pepper; seed browning; maturity; harvest time
Online: 22 October 2020 (10:04:39 CEST)
Chilling injury (CI), which causes seed browning in pepper, may arise following long-term cold storage, and is a major cause of postharvest losses. To explore potential strategies of minimizing the associated postharvest losses, the present study investigated the optimal pepper harvest time that could reduce levels of seed browning, in addition to the relationship between fruit maturity and seed browning. Fruit harvested 15 days after flowering (DAF) were sensitive to cold storage at 4°C and exhibited 100% seed browning (CI index, 4.0); in contrast, the seed browning rate of fruit harvested 35 DAF was 10% (CI index, 0.4) within 7 d of cold storage. Seed antioxidant activity was higher in seeds harvested at early stages (15 DAF to 20 DAF) than in seeds harvested at later stages (40 DAF to 50 DAF) at the beginning of storage. Pericarps of fruit harvested at 50 DAF exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. Lipoxygenase, catalase, and peroxidase activity, and the expression levels of cell wall-related genes, pectin methylesterase-like protein, and endo-β-1,4-glucanase were higher in seeds of immature fruit harvested 15 DAF than in seeds of mature fruit harvested 35 DAF. The endosperm separated from the seed coat in fruit harvested 35 DAF and the seeds did not brown under low-temperature storage. The lack of seed browning observed in mature fruit under low-temperature storage could be attributed to physical protection provided by the seed coat rather than cold stress resistance conferred by antioxidants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0090.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Carbon dioxide; Chilling injury; Ethylene response factor; Ripening; Tomato
Online: 2 February 2021 (14:26:34 CET)
The effect of CO2 pre-treatments on tomato quality prior to cold storage was investigated using physiochemical and transcriptome changes. Three hours CO2 treated fruits were firmer than untreated fruits and had a good appearance even after being transferred from 4°C storage to 20°C for 8 d. CO2 pretreatment with cold storage showed a synergistic effect on delayed ripening through reduced respiration; these tomatoes exhibited a lower lycopene content than untreated fruit under cold storage. Tomatoes treated with 30% CO2 had fewer pits than untreated fruits subjected to chilling temperatures, even after being transferred to 20°C for 8 d. Functional enrichment analyses from transcriptome and metabolome commonly showed that CO2-responsive genes or metabolites were involved in the sucrose and starch and biosynthesis of secondary metabolisms. The most frequently detected domain, ethylene-responsive factor domain and reduced glycolysis provide insights into the mechanism that CO2 regulates tomato quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0395.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: chilling requirement; chlorophyll fluorescence; non-photochemical quenching; PAM; photoprotection; stress resilience; winter dormancy
Online: 26 September 2022 (11:01:44 CEST)
Dormancy is a physiological state that confers winter hardiness to and orchestrates phenological phase progression in temperate perennial plants. Weather fluctuations caused by climate change increasingly disturb dormancy onset and release in many plant species including tree crops leading to aberrant growth, flowering, and fruiting. Currently, research in this field is impeded by the lack of affordable non-invasive methods for on-line monitoring of dormancy. We report on an automatic framework for low-cost, long-term, and scalable dormancy studies in deciduous plants. The proposed method is based on continuous near-field sensing of the photosynthetic activity of shoots via pulse-amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorescence sensors connected remotely to a data processing system. The resulting high-resolution time series of JIP-test parameters indicative of the responsiveness of the photosynthetic apparatus to environmental stimuli are subjected to frequency-domain analysis. The proposed approach allows to overcome the variance coming from diurnal changes of insolation and to derive estimations on the depth of dormancy. Our approach was validated over three seasons in an experimental apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) orchard by collating the non-invasive estimations with the results of traditional methods (growing of the cuttings obtained from the tress at different phases of dormancy) and the output of commonly used chilling requirement models. We discuss the advantages of the proposed monitoring framework such as prompt detection of freeze damages along with its potential limitations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0227.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: meta-analysis; transcription factor; binding site; genomics; transcriptomics; chilling stress; CBF; DREB; CAMTA
Online: 13 May 2020 (15:17:16 CEST)
At the molecular level, response to an external factor or an internal condition causes reprogramming of temporal and spatial transcription. When an organism undergoes physiological and/or morphological changes, several signaling pathways are activated simultaneously. Examples of such complex reactions are the response to temperature changes, dehydration, various biologically active substances, and others. Synergistic action of multiple pathways greatly complicates the experimental study of the molecular genetic mechanisms of the organism's reactions. As a result, a significant part of the regulatory ensemble in such complex reactions remains unidentified. We developed metaRE, an R package for the systematic search for cis-regulatory elements enriched in the promoters of the genes significantly changed their transcription in a complex reaction. metaRE mines multiple expression profiling datasets generated to test the same organism's response and identifies simple and composite cis-regulatory elements systematically associated with differential expression of genes. Here we showed metaRE performance for identification of cold stress-responsive cis-regulatory code in Arabidopsis thaliana. MetaRE identified potential binding sites for known as well as unknown cold response regulators. Software with source files, documentation, and example data files are freely available online at the repository (https://github.com/cheburechko/MetaRE).