ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0437.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: functional food; whey; byproducts; beverages; probiotics
Online: 27 June 2018 (09:40:14 CEST)
Whey proteins have excellent nutritional characteristics due to their levels of essential amino acids with high bioavailability. However, it has a high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and a considerable polluting potential, thus food manufacturers have opted to add whey to food formulations. The demand for beverages containing vitamins, probiotics, prebiotics, minerals, and bioactive compounds (antioxidants) with health benefits has increased and driven market growth. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a probiotic functional carbonated beverage from cheese whey and evaluate its microbiological, and physicochemical characteristics soon after the production and during storage. The viability and stability of probiotic, the microbiological characteristics, titratable acidity and sedimentation of the beverage were monitored during refrigerated storage for a month. The probiotic to be added to the formulation was established in a preliminary step. The production of this beverage proved to be a simple technology and the product was suitable for incorporation of the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. The probiotic showed good viability and stability during storage. The microbiological quality of the beverage met the Brazilian legal standards. The pH and titratable acidity of the probiotic carbonated beverage remained stable during storage, and slight sedimentation was observed after one week of refrigerated storage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0413.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Citrus aurantifolia Swingle; hesperidin; citrus byproducts; adsorption
Online: 19 November 2018 (04:14:44 CET)
The processing of Mexican limes generates great amounts of peel as a byproduct. Lime peel is mainly rich in the flavonoid hesperidin, whose bioactivity is oriented mainly to cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The purpose of this work was to develop a green process for the extraction and purification of hesperidin from Mexican lime peel. The extraction of hesperidin was investigated on a laboratory scale by varying the solvent composition and the solid-to-solvent ratio. The best conditions (solid-to-solvent ratio of 0.33 g/mL and 60% ethanol) were used for the extraction of hesperidin in a pilot scale (Volume = 20 L). The kinetics of the extraction was studied to find the maximum hesperidin concentration at 100 min. The concentrated extract had a hesperidin content of 0.303 mg/mL. Next, a purification process using adsorption resins was assessed. Through static tests, it was determined that higher adsorption efficiencies were achieved with the EXA-118 resin and diluted extract (4:6 ratio with 10% DMSO). Finally, the adsorption of hesperidin from the diluted extract (hesperidin concentration of 0.109 mg/mL) was carried out at 25 °C in a column packed with 80 mL of EXA-118 resin. The mean recovery efficiency of hesperidin from the extract was almost 90%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0012.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: Flammulina velutipes; fermentation broth; umami taste; nutrients; electronic tongue; mushroom byproducts
Online: 4 May 2022 (14:14:18 CEST)
As one of the most appealing edible mushrooms, the quality of Flammulina velutipes can be affected by the cultivation substrate, which has an impact on the mushroom umami taste and nutrients. In our study, the effect of mushroom root fermentation broth (MRFB) based substrate on umami taste and nutrients of F. velutipes were evaluated; four proportions of MRFB was conducted (CK 0%, E1 6.7%, E2 13.4%, E3 20.1%). Results indicated that MRFB was an effective nutrient supplement for mushroom cultivation substrate. E2 and E3 showed higher crude fiber, crude fat, soluble protein, and soluble sugar. Compared to CK, the content of monosodium glutamate-like (MSG-like) amino acids, essential amino acids, total amino acids and total 5'-nucleotides in E2 and E3 were higher. The equivalent umami concentration (EUC) values in E1, E2 and E3 were 1.70, 2.43 and 1.56 times of CK, respectively. Higher umami, saltness and sweetness taste values were found in E2. Thereby, it signified that better umami and richer nutrients were achieved by using substrate with proper volume of MRFB, especially, E2 with 13.4% of MRFB. Overall, better mushroom quality could be derived from the application of MRFB in cultivation. MRFB was a favorable nutrient supplement for Flammulina velutipes cultivation substrate.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: single cell oil; biomass; PUFA; docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); fish byproducts; biodiesel
Online: 5 August 2019 (04:13:54 CEST)
The following study reports on the first thraustochytrid isolates identified from Iceland. They were collected from three different locations off the northern coast of the country (Location A, Skagaströnd; Location B, Hveravík; and Location C, Eyjafjörður). Using 18S rDNA sequence analysis, isolates from Locations A and B were identified within the Thraustochytrium kinnei species while other isolates within the Sicyoidochytrium minutum species when compared to other known strains. Cells isolated from Locations A (2.10 ± 0.70 g/L) and B (1.54 ± 0.17 g/L) produced more biomass than the ones isolated from Location C (0.43 ± 0.02 g/L). This study offers the first-time examination of the utility of byproducts from fisheries as a nitrogen source in media formulation for thraustochytrids. Experiments showed that isolates produced more biomass (per unit of substrate) when cultured on nitrogen of marine (2.55 ± 0.74 g/L) as compared to of commercial origin (1.06 ± 0.57 g/L). Glycerol (2.43 ± 0.56 g/L) was a better carbon source than glucose (1.84 ± 0.57 g/L) in growth studies. Fatty acid (FA) profiles showed that the isolates from Location C (S. minutum) had low ratios of monounsaturated (4.21 ± 2.96%) and omega-6 (0.68 ± 0.59%) FAs. However, the isolates also had high ratios of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 35.65 ± 1.73%) and total omega-3 FAs (40.39 ± 2.39%), indicating that they could serve as a source of marine oils for human consumption and in aquaculture feeds. The T. kinnei isolates from Location A could be used in biodiesel production due to their high ratios of monounsaturated (18.38 ± 6.27%) long chain (57.43 ± 8.27%) FAs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Citrus flavonoids; naringin; naringenin; pectin; byproducts; anti-ischemic myocardial protection; hydrodynamic cavitation
Online: 18 August 2022 (10:54:33 CEST)
Citrus flavonoids are well-known for beneficial effects at the cardiovascular and cardio-metabolic level, but often the encouraging in vitro results are not confirmed by in vivo approaches; also clinical trials are inconsistent. The limited bioavailability of them can be, at least in part, the reason of these discrepancies. Therefore many efforts were performed towards the improvement of their bioavailability. Hydrodynamic cavitation methods were successfully applied to the extraction of byproducts of the Citrus fruits industry, showing high process yields and affording stable phytocomplexes, known as IntegroPectin, endowed with great amounts of bioactive compounds and high water solubility. Cardioprotective effects of grapefruit IntegroPectin were evaluated by an ex vivo ischemia/reperfusion protocol. A further pharmacological characterization was carried out to assess the involvement of mitochondrial potassium channels. Grapefruit IntegroPectin, where naringin represented 98% of flavonoids, showed anti-ischemic cardioprotective activity, better than pure naringenin (the bioactive aglycone of naringin). On cardiac isolated mitochondria, this extract confirmed that naringenin/naringin were involved in the activation of mitochondrial potassium channels. The hydrodynamic cavitation-based extraction confirmed a valuable opportunity for the exploitation of Citrus fruits waste, with the end product presenting high levels of Citrus flavonoids and an improved bioaccessibility that enhances its nutraceutical and economic value.