REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0334.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: ergogenic aid; dietary supplement; youth; athletes
Online: 18 January 2021 (12:36:24 CET)
Creatine is a popular ergogenic aid among athletic populations with consistent evidence indicating that creatine supplementation also continues to be commonly used among adolescent populations. In addition, the evidence base supporting the therapeutic benefits of creatine supplementation for a plethora of clinical applications in both adults and children continues to grow. Among pediatric populations, a strong rationale exists for creatine to afford therapeutic benefits pertaining to multiple neuromuscular and metabolic disorders, with preliminary evidence for other subsets of clinical populations as well. Despite the strong evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of creatine supplementation among adult populations, less is known as to whether similar physiological benefits extend to children and adolescent populations, and in particular those adolescent populations who are regularly participating in high-intensity exercise training. While limited in scope, studies involving creatine supplementation and exercise performance in adolescent athletes generally report improvements in a number of ergogenic outcomes with limited evidence of ergolytic properties and consistent reports indicating no adverse events associated with supplementation. The purpose of this article is to summarize the rationale, prevalence of use, performance benefits, clinical applications, and safety of creatine use in children and adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0043.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: burnout; passion; positivity; social support; athletes.
Online: 4 January 2021 (13:19:23 CET)
The Burnout syndrome is a negative experience for the athlete development and it has been demonstrated that it gets worse when a sport is practiced in an obsessive way. The interventions about a positive vision through the sport could be a protective factor to boost the athlete’s wellbeing. The aim of the present study was to analyze the mediator effect from social support, the relationship between the burnout, positivity and passion in young Mexican athletes. The sample was composed by 452 Mexican athletes, males and females from 12 to 18 years of age (M = 16.29, SD = 1.66). Participants answered the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire, The Scale of the Social Support Perceived by Athletes, the Passion Scale and the Positivity Scale. The results of structural equation modeling showed the model presented a good adjustment (χ2 = 813.507; df = 229; χ2 /df = 3.552; p < 0.01; CFI = 0.93; TLI = 0.91; IFI = 0.93; NFI = 0.91; RMSEA = 0.07). The positivity and harmonious passion presented direct and indirect effects over the burnout, being the perceived social support the mediator variable of the indirect effects. However, the effect of the obsessive passion mediated by the perceived social support did not resulted significant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0326.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Sleepiness; Lockdown; Female athletes; Epworth Scale; Soccer
Online: 18 January 2023 (08:40:31 CET)
BACKGROUND. The aims of this study was to compare differences in daytime sleepiness between genders and qualification levels in a cohort university Chinese soccer player under 0 Covid policy restrictions in the urban area of Shanghai. METHODS. 491 questionnaires of Epworth Sleepiness Scales (ESS) were compiled online by males and females Soccer Students (SS), Semi-professional players (SP) and professional players (PP) during the ongoing measures of Shanghai lockdown. ANOVA was performed for players levels and gender. RESULTS. Significant differences were found between the 3 levels and between males and females. PP showed a very low score in the ESS (5,97) well below the threshold of 8, while SS and SP showed an ESS score above the threshold. Female showed higher scores than males. CONCLUSIONS. This study present the first data on sleepiness in Chinese soccer players of different level of qualification in a lockdown condition. Professional players has been less affected by lockdown measures than SS and SP. We can hypothesize the reasons resides in the more ordered lifestyle of PP in comparison to SS and SP, which mitigated the effects of the lockdown. Measures to improve sleep in females’ soccer player should be adopted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0602.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: vitamin D; ferritin; student-athletes; DXA scan
Online: 25 May 2021 (10:25:33 CEST)
Adequate serum vitamin D and iron levels are thought to positively influence physical training adaptations and mood. The purpose of this prospective, observational, study was to investigate relationships between serum 25-OH vitamin D and serum ferritin levels with body composition and athlete burnout symptoms. Seventy-three collegiate athletes (49 female) from 7 indoor and outdoor sports were tested pre-season and post-season for: nutrient biomarkers (serum 25-OH vitamin D and serum ferritin) via venipuncture; body composition (total lean mass, bone mineral densi-ty/BMD, and % body fat) via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans; and athlete burnout symptoms (post-season) via the athlete burnout questionnaire (ABQ). When male and female co-horts were combined, significant relationships were noted between pre-season serum 25-OH vit-amin D versus the change (∆: post-season minus pre-season) in both BMD (r=-0.34;p=0.0003) and % body fat (r=-0.28;p=0.015). Serum ferritin ∆ was significantly associated with lean mass ∆ (r=-0.34;p=0.003). For burnout symptoms, serum 25-OH vitamin D ∆ significantly explained 20.6% of the variance for devaluation of sport in the male cohort only. Across time, serum 25-OH vitamin D levels increased while serum ferritin levels decreased, non-significantly, in both males and fe-males. Relationships between nutrient biomarkers and body composition were opposite of physio-logical expectations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0271.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: vitamin D; muscle strength; volleyball; athletes; shoulder
Online: 24 September 2019 (11:30:07 CEST)
This study aimed to examine the vitamin D status of professional volleyball athletes and to determine its correlation with shoulder muscle strength. We finally included 52 healthy male professional volleyball players (23.2 ± 4.5 years), who were categorized by vitamin D status (<20 ng/mL: deficiency, 20-30 ng/mL: insufficiency, and >30 ng/mL: sufficiency). We examined the strength of the internal rotator (IR) and external rotator (ER) muscles of the shoulder by using isokinetic dynamometer. Fourteen players (26.9%) had vitamin D deficiency, 24 players (46.2%) were vitamin D insufficient, and 14 players (26.9%) were vitamin D sufficient. There was no significant correlation between the vitamin D level and shoulder muscle strength at 60°/s (IR, r = 0.159, p = 0.26; ER, r = 0.245, p = 0.08), and at 180°/s (IR, r = - 0.093, p = 0.51; ER, r = - 0.037, p = 0.79). Moreover, the isokinetic shoulder strengths were not significantly different across the three groups in all settings. In conclusion, vitamin D insufficiency was common in elite volleyball players. Though not being associated with isokinetic muscle weakness, vitamin D should be regularly monitored and supplemented in young elite athletes, considering its importance on musculoskeletal health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0326.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: violence; young athletes; sport; self-report; questionnaire; magnitude
Online: 18 August 2022 (03:21:37 CEST)
Initiatives to safeguard athletes from interpersonal violence (IV) are rapidly growing. In Belgium, the knowledge on the magnitude of IV in sport is based on one retrospective prevalence study from 2016 (n=2.043 adults), who participated in organized sport before 18 years. Data on victimization rates in current youth sport populations are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the magnitude of IV in a sample of 769 athletes (13-21 years old), using the Violence Towards Athletes Questionnaire (VTAQ). All types of IV are prevalent in this sample, ranging from 27% (sexual violence) to 79% (psychological violence and neglect). Boys reported significantly more physical violence, while girls reported significantly more sexual violence. IV perpetrated by peer athletes was reported to the same degree as IV perpetrated by a coach (70%), while IV perpetrated by a parent in the context of sport was somewhat less common, but still prevalent (48%). These findings, including factors associated with elevated exposure rates, can serve as a baseline measurement to monitor and evaluate current and future safeguarding interventions in Belgian sport.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0705.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: elite athletes; olympic sailors; body temperature; heat adaptation
Online: 27 April 2021 (11:41:24 CEST)
Objective On the eve of the summer Olympic Games in Tokyo research focus has shifted on the core temperature responses of elite athletes competing in the heat. In the absence of the field data of core temperature during Olympic sailing competition aim of the present study was to identify core temperature response during the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Test Event. Methods Four elite athletes from Olympic sailing (177.5±5.2 cm, 71.1±7.4 kg, body mass index 22.5±1.4 kg/m2, 24.8±3.7 yrs, VO2max 50.6±7.2 mL/min/kg)): 2 males and 2 females participated in the study. Core temperature was recorded using e-Celsius ingestible capsules, heart rate using a heart rate monitor. Ambient conditions in direct sunlight were measured using portable meteo station. Results Core temperature was recorded at water environment via an ingestible capsule in 4 sailors during the training (T), and competition (C), respectively. Ambient conditions in direct sunlight were hot and humid: during training temperature were 30.9°C±1.7°C and relative humidity 81.4%±2.8%, corresponding to a wet-bulb globe temperature of 41°C±4°C and during competition temperature was 31.2°C±2.3°C and relative humidity 87.2%±4.4%, corresponding to a wet-bulb globe temperature of 45.2°C±8.9°C. Core temperature increased during training reaching higher peak values (38.6°C±0.4°C) and during competition (38.9°C±0.4°C). The highest temperature recorded was 39.4°C (C). Conclusion The current study provides unique information into the core temperature parameters under heat stress in elite Olympic sailors during training and race event.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0394.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: unanticipated; decision-making; brain function; sports; athletes; cognition
Online: 18 August 2020 (16:32:00 CEST)
The performance of choice-reaction tasks during athletic movement has been demonstrated to evoke unfavorable lower limb biomechanics. However, the mechanism of this observation is unknown. We conducted a systematic review examining the association between 1) the biomechanical and functional safety of unplanned sports-related movements (e.g. jumps/runs with spontaneously indicated landing leg/cutting direction) and 2) markers of perceptual-cognitive function (PGF). A literature search in three databases (Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar) identified five relevant articles. Study quality, rated by means of a modified Downs & Black checklist, was moderate to high (average: 13.5/16 points). Four of five papers, in at least one parameter, found either an association of lower PGF and reduced task safety or significantly reduced task safety in low vs. high PGF performers. Yet, as a) the outcomes, populations and statistical methods of the included trials were highly heterogeneous and b) only two out of five studies had an adequate control condition (pre-planned movement task), evidence was classified as conflicting. In sum, PGF may represent a factor increasing injury risk during unplanned sports-related movements but future research strengthening the evidence of this association is warranted.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0100.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: burnout phenomenon; child and adolescent athletes; psychological intervention; online intervention
Online: 4 August 2022 (04:36:42 CEST)
(1) Background: The subject of athlete burnout is often discussed among sports psychologists. Interventions to reduce this phenomenon are still under investigation with follow-up. Thus, the purpose of the current meta-analysis was to examine psychological interventions that have already been carried out to decrease or eliminate burnout syndrome in young athletes. (2) Methods: Scientific electronic databases were searched and five published studies published between January 2002 and June 2022, which met the criteria, were selected. This systematic review and meta-analyses followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias was used to assess the studies' quality. The metafor a package of the R statistical program was used to perform the analysis. (3) Results: Cognitive-behavioral therapy as well as mindfulness-based interventions effectively reduced most dimensions of burnout. Moreover, online interventions were significantly more beneficial in this reduction (4) Conclusions: There should be more high-quality studies on the effectiveness of psychological interventions in reducing burnout. Mainly because it leads to tremendous physical and psychological problems for athletes and their coaches and therefore requires particular interventions and prevention strategies.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: athletes; eating disorders; weight loss; body dissatisfaction; body image disorders
Online: 27 May 2021 (08:50:10 CEST)
TThe passion of bodybuilding athletes for a symmetric, lean, heavily muscled body leads them to carry out exhausting exercise programs and restrictive eating regimens, sometimes resulting in disordered eating behaviors. This study investigates potential exacerbators on the development of disordered eating in bodybuilding and strength athletes. The study involved 103 Cypriot bodybuilding athletes of both sexes, performing at three levels: professional, recreational and strength athletes. The Eating Attitude Test 26 (EAT-26) and The Three Factor Eating Question-naire (TFEQ-R21) were used to evaluate disordered eating and eating behaviors respectively. The current study was performed under the auspices of the Hellenic Center of Education & Treatment of Eating Disorders (KEADD). The degree of deviation between the perceived ideal body weight and the actual body weight was associated with increased risk of eating disorder. Athletes who desired a lower body weight recorded higher scores on EAT-26 overall, (p=0.001), and the subscales of dieting (p=0.01) and bulimia. (p=0.001). Cognitive restraint and emotional eating scales of TFEQ-R21 were more pronounced in the non-professional athletes. (p=0.01). The emotional eating score was higher in women. There is a need for appropriate sport-specific, gender-specific preventive intervention to deescalate the risk of eating disorder, in both profes-sional and non-professional bodybuilding athletes.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0471.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Athletes; eating disorders; weight loss; body dissatisfaction; body image disorders
Online: 19 April 2021 (12:10:51 CEST)
The passion of bodybuilding athletes for a symmetric, lean, heavily muscled body leads them to carry out exhausting exercise programs and restrictive eating regimens, sometimes resulting in disordered eating behaviors. This study investigates potential exacerbators on the development of disordered eating in bodybuilding and strength athletes. The study involved 103 Cypriot bodybuilding athletes of both sexes, performing at three levels: professional, recreational and strength athletes. The Eating Attitude Test 26 (EAT-26) and The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-R21) were used to evaluate disordered eating and eating behaviors respectively. The current study was performed under the auspices of the Hellenic Center of Education & Treatment of Eating Disorders (KEADD). The degree of deviation between the perceived ideal body weight and the actual body weight was associated with increased risk of eating disorder. Athletes who desired a lower body weight recorded higher scores on EAT-26 overall, and the subscales of dieting and bulimia. Cognitive restraint and emotional eating scales of TFEQ-R21 were more pronounced in the non-professional athletes. The emotional eating score was higher in women. There is a need for appropriate sport-specific, gender-specific preventive intervention to deescalate the risk of eating disorder, in both professional and non-professional bodybuilding athletes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0350.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: genetics; DNA; polymorphism; genotype; muscle protein synthesis; anabolism; hypertrophy; endurance; athletes
Online: 24 January 2022 (11:49:22 CET)
Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) levels are associated with skeletal muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). Serum BCAA levels are enhanced by whey protein supplementation (WPS), and evidence in clinical populations suggests an association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with BCAA metabolite levels. It is not known whether the same SNPs are associated with the ability to catabolise BCAAs from exogenous sources, such as WPS. The present study investigated whether possessing a higher number of alleles associated with increased BCAA metabolites correlates with muscle fiber CSA of m. vastus lateralis in physically active participants, and whether any relationship is enhanced by WPS. Endurance-trained participants (n=75) were grouped by self-reported habitual WPS consumption and genotyped for 5 SNPs (PPM1K rss1440580, APOA5 rs2072560, CBLN1 rs1420601, DDX19B rs12325419, TRMT61A rs58101275). Body mass, BMI and fat percentage were significantly lower and muscle mass higher in the WPS group (n=22) compared to Non-WPS (n=53). The number of BCAA-increasing alleles was correlated with fiber CSA in the WPS group (r=0.75, p<0.0001) and was stronger for fast-twitch fibers (p=0.001) than slow-twitch fibers (p=0.048). Similar results remained when corrected for multiple covariates (age, physical activity, meat and dairy intake). No correlation was found in the Non-WPS group. This study presents novel evidence of a positive relationship between BCAA-increasing alleles and muscle fiber CSA in athletes habitually consuming WPS. We suggest that a high number of BCAA-increasing alleles improves the efficiency of WPS by stimulation of muscle protein synthesis, and contributes to greater fiber CSA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0081.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: dietary assessment; food record; FFQ; biomarker; doubly labeled water; energy intake; validity; athletes; sports nutrition
Online: 12 October 2017 (09:43:35 CEST)
Dietary assessment methods recognized as appropriate for the general population are usually applied in a similar manner to athletes, despite knowledge that sport-specific factors can complicate assessment and impact accuracy in unique ways. As dietary assessment methods are used extensively within the field of sports nutrition, there is concern the validity of methodologies have not undergone more rigorous evaluation in this unique population sub-group. The purpose was to systematically review studies comparing two or more methods of dietary assessment, including dietary intake measured against biomarkers or reference measures of energy expenditure, in athletes. Six electronic databases were searched for English-language, full-text articles published from January 1980 until June 2016. The search strategy combined the following keywords: diet, nutrition assessment, athlete and validity; where the following outcomes are reported but not limited to: energy intake, macro and/or micronutrient intake, food intake, nutritional adequacy, diet quality, or nutritional status. Meta-analysis was performed on studies with sufficient methodological similarity, with between-group standardized mean differences (or effect size) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) calculated. Of the 1624 studies identified, 18 were eligible for inclusion. Studies comparing self-reported energy intake (EI) to energy expenditure assessed via doubly labelled water were grouped for comparison (n=11) and demonstrated mean EI was under-estimated by 19 % (- 2793 ± 1134 kJ/d). Meta-analysis revealed a large pooled effect size of - 1.006 (95% CI: -1.3 to -0.7; p<0.001). The remaining studies (n=7) compared a new dietary tool or instrument to a reference method(s) (e.g. food record, 24-h dietary recall, biomarker) as part of a validation study. This systematic review revealed there are limited robust studies evaluating dietary assessment methods in athletes. Existing literature demonstrates substantial variability between methods, with under and misreporting of intake frequently observed. There is a clear need for careful validation of dietary assessment methods, including emerging technical innovations, among athlete populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0783.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: cancer, cancer survivor, exercise, athletes, competition, long-term effects, late effects, living with and beyond cancer
Online: 31 May 2021 (14:02:13 CEST)
Athletes living with and beyond cancer can continue to train and, in some cases, compete during treatment. Following cancer treatment, athletes can return to competitive sport but need to learn to adapt their physical strength and training to lingering effects of cancer. It is critical for oncology healthcare providers to use the principles of assess, refer and advise to exercise oncology programs that are appropriate for the individual. Managing side effects of treatment is key to being able to train during and immediately following cancer treatment. Keen attention to fatigue is important at any point in the cancer spectrum to avoid overtraining and optimize the effects of training.