ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0016.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: ancient; astronomy; cave; constellation; zoomorphic
Online: 4 January 2021 (11:30:41 CET)
Currently it was theoritized that cave paintings have meaning more than human and animal interactions. Based on an example from Lascaux cave, a figure of a bull is believed representing Taurus constellation together with the Pleiades. In here this study aims to assess the connections of paleolithic art works in the forms of cave paintings and zoomorphic figures resemble to bovid with possible ancient astronomy and constellation depictions in South East Asia. The study caves were Jeriji Saleh in Kalimantan and Leang Leang and Sumpang Bita caves in Sulawesi where ancient cave paintings and zoomorphic figures date to 40000 years old have been found. The results show that cave paintings in Jeriji Saleh, Leang Leang and Sumpang Bita caves were comparable to the current findings. Those paintings were having bovid like figures with Leang Leang has figure identified as extant Bubalus depressicornis. In Sumpang Bita, this species was depicted in pregnant condition similar to pregnant horse figure in Lascaux cave. Depiction of pregnant figures in cave paintings indicates the use of ancient calendar to determine season based on the animal mating season. Bovid figure in Jeriji Saleh was illustrated in the same posture like auroch bovid in Lascaux cave and this indicates that cave paintings in Jeriji Saleh have been used to visualize Taurus constellation. The postures of bovid paintings in Leang Leang were different and it is interpreted to visualize Capricorn constellation. Another significant similarity between Lascaux and Leang Leang caves can be seen in paintings depicting a shaft scene with the presences of 3 similar figures include dying man, speared bovid and small zoomorphic figures. This concludes that the caves with their wall painting were not merely functioned as media for ancient art works, whereas it has functioned as paleolithic planetarium and this knowledge was globally widespread.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0216.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: ancient; canal; irrigation; Majapahit; NDVI; reservoir
Online: 9 December 2020 (10:54:59 CET)
Majapahit is one of vast kingdoms and civilizations in Southeast Asia in 14th century. The kingdom and its capital city are centered in present Trowulan suburban, east Java and bordered by mountain range in the south and river in the east and north. Regarding the geological condition then Majapahit kingdom has a challenge especially to provide the water managements for its agricultural practices. In here, this study aims to assess the hydrology systems developed by Majapahit civilizations and how this system is effective in maintaining vegetation health. Based on the results, the gravity-fed hydrology systems consist of networks involving river, dam, underground and surface water canal and reservoir pond. The water from upstream was managed using dams and channeled into streams and collected inside the ponds. This network spans approximately 10 km from the first dam to the last 6.49 Ha reservoir built in the middle of city. The water channeled from dam to reservoir pond was using natural streams and 2.4 km underground canal. This 40 cm depth man made canal was a water source for agricultural soils since it was used to irrigate the nearby paddy field. During past El Nino in 2019 that has caused prolong drought, the Majapahit irrigation system has provided water for the adjacent paddy field. Based on the vegetation health analysis measured using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), paddy field watered by man made canal shows higher NDVI values or at least has same values compared to the field watered by contemporary canals. Then, the 14th century irrigation system developed by Majapahit civilization is a valuable heritage that needs to be preserved considering its important functions even in this contemporary era.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1338.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: ancient building; heat transfer moisture transfer; simulation
Online: 18 May 2023 (10:57:28 CEST)
The heritage of ancient buildings is an important part of the world's history and culture, which has an extremely rich historical-cultural value and artistic research value. Beijing has a large number of palace ancient buildings, and because of the age of their construction, many of them have problems of varying degrees of peeling and mold on the inner surfaces of the envelope. To solve the problems of the damp and moldy interior of palace buildings, a mathematical model of indoor heat and moisture transfer was established based on a wooden palace ancient building in Beijing. Through the indoor mold distribution validation model, the effects of outdoor humidity, soil moisture, wall humidity, and other factors on the indoor heat and moisture transfer of ancient buildings were simulated and analyzed by using the control variables method. The results showed that the molds were distributed at the indoor corners and floors, and the simulation of indoor humidity match the measured humidity. Thus, the simulation results were consistent with the actual situation. The variable trend of the relative humidity of the indoor environment with the outdoor humidity is inconsistent from plane to plane, i.e. it increases or remains constant with the increase of the outdoor humidity. The indoor ambient relative humidity increased with increasing the wall humidity. And the indoor average temperature is 23.3 ℃ and indoor relative humidity ranged between 90.9 % to 92.44 %. Soil moisture and wall humidity were the main factors affecting the indoor environmental relative humidity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0124.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ancient genomes; peopling of Italy; human migrations
Online: 4 June 2021 (08:18:09 CEST)
The Italian Peninsula, a natural pier across the Mediterranean Sea, witnessed intricate population events since the very beginning of human occupation in Europe. In the last few years, an increasing number of modern and ancient genomes from the area has been published by the international research community. This genomic perspective started unveiling the relevance of Italy to understand the post-Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) re-peopling of Europe, the earlier phase of the Neolithic westward migrations, and its linking role between Eastern and Western Mediterranean areas after the Iron Age. However many open questions are still waiting for more data to be addressed in full. With this review, we summarize the current knowledge emerging from the available ancient Italian individuals and, by re-analysing them all at once, we try to shed light on the avenues future research in the area should cover. In particular, open questions concern i) the fate of pre-Villabruna Europeans and to what extent their genomic components were absorbed by the post-LGM hunter-gatherers; ii) the role of Sicily and Sardinia before LGM; iii) to what degree the documented genetic structure within the Early Neolithic settlers can be described as two separate migrations; iv) what are the population events behind the marked presence of an Iranian Neolithic-like component in Bronze Age and Iron Age Italian and Southern European samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0270.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Samaritans; Ancient Judaism; Rabbinic Literature; Talmud; Midrash
Online: 12 May 2021 (13:47:26 CEST)
Samaritans as a group within the ranges of ancient ‘Judaisms’ are often mentioned in Talmud and Midrash. As comparable social-religious entities, they are regarded ambivalently by the Rabbis. First, they were viewed as Jews, but from the end of the Tannaitic times, and especially after the Bar Kokhba revolt, they were perceived as non-Jews, not reliable about different fields of Halakhic concern. Rabbinic writings reflect on this change in attitude and describe a long ongoing conflict and a growing anti-Samaritan attitude. The article analyzes several dialogues between rabbis and Samaritans transmitted in the Midrash on the book of Genesis, Bereshit Rabbah. In four larger sections, the famous Rabbi Me’ir is depicted as the counterpart of certain Samaritans. The analyses of these discussions try to show how rabbinic texts avoid any direct exegetical dispute over particular verses of the Torah, but point to other hermeneutical levels of discourse and rejection of Samaritan claims. These texts thus reflect a remarkable understanding of some Samaritan convictions, and they demonstrate how rabbis denounced Samaritanism and refuted their counterparts. The Rabbi Me’ir dialogues thus are an impressive literary witness to the final stages of the parting of ways of these diverging religious streams.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0021.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear And High Energy Physics Keywords: ancient Pb; synthesis; single crystal growth; scintillation; thermally stimulated luminescence
Online: 3 February 2020 (06:06:07 CET)
A powder synthesis of PbMoO4 from ancient lead (Pb) and deeply purified commercial MoO3 powders was performed using a wet chemistry technique to achieve the low radioactivity scintillator for neutrinoless double beta decay search in 100Mo. The synthesized powders were used to grow single crystals of PbMoO4 by a Czochralski technique in Ar environment. The luminescence and scintillation properties were measured with excitations using UV, X- and γ-rays in temperature range of 10-300 K. Annealing of the grown PMO crystal in air atmosphere enhanced the scintillation light yield by ~3 orders of magnitude compared to that measured before annealing. The scintillation light yield of grown PMO crystal at 10 K is found to be 127% to that of a reference PMO crystal under 662 keV γ-rays excitation from a 137Cs source. The background measurement of the grown crystal performed at 50 K shows negligible activity from 210Pb compared to that of reference PMO crystal. These preliminary performances show that the PMO crystal grown from ancient Pb and deeply purified MoO3 powders has the great potential to be used as cryogenic scintillator for the neutrinoless double beta decay search in 100Mo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0272.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Chinese pyramids; Han dynasty; Feng-Shui; protection of ancient landscapes
Online: 24 December 2018 (10:48:36 CET)
The so-called “Chinese pyramids” are huge burial mounds covering the tombs of the Emperors of the Western Han dynasty. If we include also the mounds of the members of the royal families, these monuments sum up to more than 40, scattered throughout the western and the southern outskirts of modern Xi'an. They are mostly unexcavated and poorly known although, taken together, they form a fascinating sacred landscape, which was conceived as a perennial witness of one of the most magnificent Chinese dynasties. This sacred landscape is today encroached by the frenetic urban development of the Xi’an urban area. We discuss and elaborate here some of the results of a recent, new satellite-imagery survey of these monuments, highlighting the aspects which may contribute to solutions for a sustainable and compatible development within this important ancient landscape.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0022.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Ancient Egyptian mathematics; circle’s area; ratio of a circumference to diameter
Online: 1 August 2023 (07:06:30 CEST)
It is known from ancient Egyptian mathematical papyri that the Egyptians were able to calculate the area of a circle with great accuracy. How they found the formula for this calculation was still unknown. Here it is shown how the unknown ancient Egyptian mathematician found a method for calculating the area of a circle and the ratio of a circle’s circumference to diameter.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Archaeology; Morphology; ancient DNA; feralisation; hybridization; breed; Salish dogs; Canis; skulls
Online: 8 June 2021 (12:10:40 CEST)
Domestication had a dramatic influence on the cultural evolution of human histories, and on the biological evolution of domesticated species. Domestic dogs occurred earlier in the Americas than other domesticated animals. Older records in the continent come from North America, dated 11,000-8,400 ybp, and in the Andes from 5,600-5,000 ybp. In order to present an overview of human-dog interaction in the Americas, and to identify gaps in knowledge of this subject, we reviewed 178 publications on zooarchaeological record of burials, genetics, morphology, and ethnological information of American dogs, revisiting the history and interactions across the continent. There is no evidence of an in-situ dog initial domestication. Pre-Columbian diversity in North America includes at least three varieties, whereas in South America six varieties were documented. Historical descriptions of phenotypes (e.g. humped dog) may represent an expression associated with mutations. We find that archaeological, historical, and ethnographic records reveal non-traditional uses and hybridizations with other canids. For example, the Coast Salish people exploited woolly dogs for manufacturing blankets. Dog acquisition by some Amazonian cultures began towards the end of the nineteenth century. Overall more than 41 dog breeds originated in the Americas and are currently recognized by kennel clubs. The main gap in knowledge points to the relationships between American breeds, local hybridizations, migratory routes of dogs following Indigenous peoples’ social networks, historical-cultural contexts, and quantification of morphological diversity. North and Central American dogs have been more intensively studied than those from the Amazon regions or Patagonia. We find that the history of domestication in the Americas is far from simple and integrative studies are needed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0027.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Population genetics; Statistical modelling; Demographic modelling; Ancient DNA; Population history; Archaeology
Online: 2 March 2020 (15:17:14 CET)
Demographic processes directly affect patterns of genetic variation within contemporary populations as well as future generations, allowing for demographic inference from patterns of both present day and past genetic variation. Advances in laboratory procedures and sequencing and genotyping technologies in the last decades have resulted in massive increases in high quality genome-wide genetic data from present day populations and allowed retrieving genetic data from archaeological material, also known as ancient DNA. This has resulted in an explosion of work exploring past changes in population size, structure, continuity and movement. However, as genetic processes are highly stochastic, patterns of genetic variation only indirectly reflect demographic histories. As a result, past demographic processes need to be reconstructed using an inferential approach. This usually involves comparing observed patterns of variation with model expectations from theoretical population genetics. A large number of approaches have been developed based on different population genetic models that each come with assumptions about the data and underlying demography. In this article I review some of the key models and assumptions underlying the most commonly used approaches for past demographic inference and their consequences for our ability to link the inferred demographic processes to the archaeological and climate records.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0519.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: prehistory; history; archeobiology; paleovirology; EVEs; ancient DNA; paleogenomics; pathology collections; historic publications
Online: 30 August 2022 (10:29:39 CEST)
Since life on earth developed, parasitic microbes have thrived. Increases in host numbers, or the conquest of a new species, provides an opportunity for such a pathogen to enjoy, before host defense systems kick in, a similar upsurge in reproduction. Outbreaks ‒ caused by ‘endemic’ pathogens ‒ and epidemics ‒ caused by ‘novel’ pathogens ‒ have thus been creating chaos and destruction since prehistorical times. To study such (pre)historic epidemics, recent advances in the ancient DNA field, applied to both archeological and historical remains, have helped tremendously to elucidate the evolutionary trajectory of pathogens. These studies offered new and unexpected insights in the evolution of, for instance, smallpox virus, hepatitis B virus and the plague-causing bacterium Yersinia pestis. Furthermore, burial patterns and historical publications can help in tracking down ancient pathogens. Another source of information is our genome, where selective sweeps in immune-related genes relate to past pathogen attacks, while multiple viruses have left their genomes behind for us to study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0124.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Trypanosomatidae; Kraken taxonomic assignment tool; Bowtie2 fast short reads aligner; Ancient DNA; Parasitome; Co-infection
Online: 6 July 2018 (16:58:45 CEST)
Proper species identification from ancient DNA samples is a difficult task that sheds light on the evolutionary history of pathogenic microorganisms. The field of palaeomicrobiology has undoubtedly benefited from the advent of untargeted metagenomic approaches that use next-generation sequencing methodologies. Nevertheless, assigning ancient DNA at the species level is a challenging process. Recently, the gut microbiome analysis of three pre-Columbian Andean mummies (Santiago-Rodriguez et al. 2016) has called into question the identification of Leishmania in South America. Here, the metagenomic data filed in MG-RAST (Metagenomics RAST server) were used for a further attempt to identify members of the Trypanosomatidae family infecting these ancient remains. For this purpose, we used two metagenomic analysis tools. In the first step, data were analysed using the ultrafast metagenomic sequence classifier, based on exact alignment of k-mers (Kraken). In the second step, we used Bowtie2, an ultrafast and memory-efficient tool for aligning sequencing reads to long reference sequences. We then compared the output results. These approaches highlight some interesting findings on potential infections by human pathogenic trypanosomatids in these three pre-Columbian mummies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0564.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: history of metallurgy; co-fusion steelmaking; ancient China; microstructure evolution; simulation experiments; cast iron; wrought iron
Online: 23 July 2020 (12:49:21 CEST)
The study of co-fusion was one of the essential topics in the history of metallurgy in China. Simulation experiments had been an essential concept in the study of the co-fusion steelmaking process. This paper mainly studied the simulation experiments of co-fusion from two aspects: the replication of co-fusion swords by three different methods, and the micro-analysis of the co-fusion samples. The experimental results indicated that several co-fusion swords could be made by different processes, but the carbon content and surface hardness were quite different. During repeated forging welded, the microstructure of the samples transformed from laminated to homogenized, finally the steel with a uniform carbon content was obtained. It was challenging to find the characteristics of co-fusion from the homogenized samples. The results prompted people to rethink the microstructure characteristics of ancient co-fusion artifacts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0083.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Chinese ancient architecture; bracket set; tile work; regularized reconstruction; parametric; algorithm modeling; Grasshopper; HBIM; built heritage
Online: 9 January 2020 (11:57:24 CET)
By the study of the pattern book Ying Zao Fa Shi (building regulations of Song Dynasty, 1103 AD), while analyzing the combining and dimensioning rule of timber framework and tile work, a model self-generating program has been compiled for the first time. The operating framework has been firstly defined, while solving the issues of clustering principle, connecting method, output classification, etc. with the detailed description of algorithm theory. Taking the corner bracket set and nine-ridge roof for example, after the compilation and debug by Grasshopper, according to various input parameters, various models have been generated automatically by the plugin, proving the velocity and the veracity of the algorithm.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0015.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Hydrospheric events; tectonic-geodynamic zonation; paleogeographic reconstructions; ancient man migration; Levantine Corridor; paleomagnetic correlation; deep geodynamic factors
Online: 1 December 2021 (13:06:47 CET)
The origin of the man at the Earth is directly associated with the determination of directions of the flow distribution of the ancient man migration to adjacent territories. In such studies traditionally mainly landscape and climatological changes are considered. We suggest that along with the above factors, regional tectonic-geodynamic factors played a dominant role in the character of migration. The considered African-Levantine-Caucasian region is one of the most complex regions of the world, where collisional and spreading processes of geodynamics converge. First is determined an essential influence of the Akchagylian hydrospheric maximum (about 200 m above the mean sea level) limiting the ancient men migration from Africa to Eurasia. We propose that the Levantine Corridor emerged after the end of the Akchagylian transgression and landscape forming in the Eastern Mediterranean. This corridor location was formed by the movements between the Dead Sea Transform and the boundary of the carbonate platform of the Mesozoic Terrane Belt. Further landscape evolution was largely determined by the geodynamic behavior of the deep mantle rotating structure occurring below the central part of the region under study. All the mentioned events around and in the Levantine Corridor have been studied in detail on the basis of the combined geodynamic, paleogeographic, and paleomagnetic analyzes performed in northern Israel (Carmel uplift and Galilee plateau). Careful studies of the Evron quarry geological section indicate that it is a unique one for the dating of the marine and continental archaeological sequences and sheds light on the movement of the ancient man along the Levantine Corridor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0310.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Ancient villages; historical locations; node space; convex space method, field of view analysis method, Baidu time machine; parameters
Online: 13 July 2021 (14:16:30 CEST)
This research takes Cuiwei Village in Qianshan District of Zhuhai City as an example. Through field research, the village is investigated and analyzed, and the street scale, spatial structure, functional characteristic streets, internal commercial distribution forms, and functions of Cuiwei Historic District are studied. analysis. On this basis, based on the convex space method and the line-of-sight analysis method in the space syntax theory, with the help of Depthmap software, the complex street node, that is, the space of the two nodes A and B, is established through the establishment of a visual field model. It includes the analysis of the integration degree of the horizon, the concentration of the horizon, the connection value of the horizon and the spatial characteristics of the historical area, as well as the traditional buildings that are the most representative of the village, namely the Three Kings Temple and the Webster's Mansion. When R=N and radius R=3, observe the changes in the two parameters of the visual integration and visual depth of the two historical buildings. And with the help of Baidu Time Machine photos in different periods to observe and record the changes in the store and the characteristics of people's behavior, and draw conclusions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1096.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: review; Chinese ancient thoughts on plant protection; plant protection methods and subdivision measures; pesticide application technology; 3R/3E/3M; pesticide spraying; measurement and simulation; robot for plant protection
Online: 17 October 2023 (12:13:16 CEST)
After reviewing the history of the struggle between human beings and plant diseases, insects and weeds, especially reviewing the thoughts of plant protection in ancient Chinese agricultural books, the target recognition of plant pests and the six types of plant protection methods and 36 subdi-vision measures were summarized. Then the development overview of pesticide application technology was focused and reviewed systematically by combining the development timeline of pesticide application and the key technologies including the performance measurement and the simulation and modeling of pesticide spraying system. And three suggestions for further research were proposed from the perspectives of human-being and environmental health, the sustainable and eco-friendly application medium, and the efficiently application equipment system in plant protection.