Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: ESKAPE; Acinetobacter; aminoglycosides; amikacin; acetyltransferase; silver; adjuvant
Online: 9 December 2020 (11:05:29 CET)
Clinical resistance to amikacin and other aminoglycosides is usually due to enzymatic acetylation of the antimicrobial molecule. A ubiquitous resistance enzyme among Gram-negatives is the aminoglycoside 6'-N-acetyltransferase type Ib [AAC(6')-Ib], which catalyzes acetylation using acetyl-CoA as donor substrate. Therapies that combine the antibiotic and an inhibitor of the inactivation reaction could be an alternative to treat infections caused by resistant bacteria. We had previously observed that metal ions such as Zn2+ or Cu2+ in complex with ionophores interfere with the AAC(6')-Ib-mediated inactivation of aminoglycosides and reduced resistance to susceptibility levels. Ag1+ recently attracted attention as a potentiator of aminoglycosides' action by mechanisms still in discussion. We found that silver acetate is also a robust inhibitor of the enzymatic acetylation mediated by AAC(6')-Ib in vitro. This action seems to be independent of other mechanisms, like increased production of reactive oxygen species and enhanced membrane permeability, proposed to explain the potentiation of the antibiotic effect by silver ions. The addition of this compound to aac(6')-Ib harboring Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia coli cultures resulted in a dramatic reduction of the resistance levels. Time-kill assays showed that the combination of silver acetate and amikacin was bactericidal and exhibited low cytotoxicity to HEK293 cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0416.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Aminoglycosides, population pharmacokinetic modeling, intensive care unit, critically ill
Online: 15 April 2021 (13:10:47 CEST)
Background Although aminoglycosides are often used as treatment for Gram-Negative infections, optimal dosing regimens remains unclear, especially in ICU patients. This is due to a large between- and within-subject variability in the aminoglycosides’ pharmacokinetics in this population. Objective The review provides comprehensive data on the pharmacokinetics of aminoglycosides in patients hospitalized in ICU by summarizing all published PopPK models in ICU patients for amikacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin. The objective was to determine the presence of a consensus on the structural model used, significant covariates included, and therapeutic targets considered during dosing regimen simulations. Methods A literature search was conducted from the Medline/PubMed database, using the terms: ‘amikacin’, ’gentamicin’, ’tobramycin’, ‘pharmacokinetic(s)’, nonlinear mixed effect’, population’, ‘intensive care’ and ‘critically ill’. Results Nineteen articles were retained where amikacin, gentamicin and tobramycin pharmacokinetics were described in six, eleven and five models, respectively. Two-compartment model best described amikacin and tobramycin pharmacokinetics, whereas one-compartment model majorly described gentamicin pharmacokinetics. The most recurrent significant covariates were renal clearance and bodyweight. Across all aminoglycosides, mean interindividual variability in clearance and volume of distribution were 41.6% and 22.0%, respectively. A common consensus for an optimal dosing regimen for each aminoglycoside was not reached. Conclusion This review showed models developed for amikacin, from 2015 until now and for gentamicin and tobramycin from the past decades. Despite growing challenges of external evaluation, the latter should be more considered during model development. Further research including new covariates, additional simulated dosing regimens and external validation should be considered to better understand aminoglycosides pharmacokinetics in ICU patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0104.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: Urinary tract infection; antimicrobial agents; antibiotic resistance; E. coli; uropathogens; aminoglycosides
Online: 6 July 2020 (10:30:47 CEST)
Around the world, there is no population clear from urinary tract infection (UTI), particularly among women. UTI is considered the most predominant bacterial infection. This study aimed to detect the incidence of the most common major uropathogens in patients severe from urinary tract infection with antibiotic sensitivity tests that assist urologist doctors for appropriate antimicrobial empirical therapy.Methods: This study was carried in a private laboratory in Babil city, Iraq from May 2019 to May 2020. Totally 70 individuals suffering from clear symptoms of UTI, as well as, 20 healthy persons participated in this study as a control group. Then, the standard microbiological methods carried out to isolate and identify bacterial species. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using different antimicrobial discs by applying the Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method.Results: Totally, 90 specimens were obtained from them 20 control group, 19 with no growth, and 51 patients with bacterial growth distributed as 43 (83%) females and 8 (17%) males. E. coli were the most common predominant organisms. All isolates were showed a high rate of resistance to evaluated cephalosporins 100% and 82% to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone respectively, while very low resistance recorded in Aminoglycosides 20% and 13% to Gentamicin and amikacin respectively. Most age group infected with UTI was 21-40 years old.Conclusion: The current study showed an increasing burden of urinary tract infection caused by various bacteria implicated in UTI that causes changeable sensitivity to various antimicrobial agents. Therefore, in clinical use appropriate medications should be selected based on the data obtained from antimicrobial susceptibility tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0132.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Enterococcus faecalis; natural products; aminoglycosides; aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes; APH(3’)-IIIa; flavone derivative
Online: 8 November 2022 (01:39:19 CET)
Enterococcus faecalis is a bacterium that can develop a multidrug resistance profile associated with the community as well as nosocomial-acquired infections. Among the treatment options for these infections are aminoglycosides combined with bacterial cell wall inhibitors such as beta-lactams, since E. faecalis is intrinsically resistant to aminoglycosides. One of its most representative resistance mechanisms is the expression of aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes, such as the aminoglycoside phosphotransferase type IIIa of E. faecalis (EfAPH(3')-IIIa). This enzyme acts by phosphorylating aminoglycosides in an ATP-dependent reaction, modifying the 3' position of hydroxyl groups of these antibiotics. Considering this scenario, 3,092 natural products obtained from the ZINC22 database were analyzed to select molecules with the highest affinity for the nucleotide-binding pocket of EfAPH(3')-IIIa, which could be potential aminoglycoside adjuvants. The molecules that showed the best-score results obtained from ensemble docking-based virtual screening were ZINC000000952700 (BS-1), ZINC000014793040 (BS-2) and ZINC000015498603 (BS-3). The most promising results were for BS-2, a flavone derivative, due to its improved stability profile in molecular dynamics simulation (average values of RMSD of 0.23 nm, and Rg of 1.94 nm), binding free energy calculations (average ΔG total of -35.3 nm), as well as better toxicological profile (lower probability of hepatotoxicity, carcinogenic, immunotoxicity, mutagenicity, and cytotoxicity effects), compared to BS-1 and BS-3. These results allow us to propose that a flavone derivative may act as an adjuvant to aminoglycosides in the treatment of E. faecalis infections, acting as an inhibitor in the nucleotide-binding pocket of EfAPH(3')-IIIa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0039.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: zebrafish; lateral line; neuromast; hair cell; ototoxicity; toxicity; regeneration; cell death; neomycin; aminoglycosides
Online: 4 October 2021 (10:27:34 CEST)
Acute chemical ablation of lateral line hair cells is an important tool to understand lateral line-mediated behaviors in free-swimming fish larvae and adults. However, lateral line-mediated behaviors have not been described in fish larvae prior to swim bladder inflation, possibly because single doses of ototoxin do not effectively silence lateral line function at early developmental stages. To determine if ototoxins can effectively silence the lateral line during early development, we repeatedly expose zebrafish larvae to the ototoxin neomycin during a 36-hour period from 3-4 days post-fertilization (dpf). We use simultaneous transgenic and vital dye labeling of hair cells to compare 6- hour and 12-hour repeated treatment timelines and neomycin concentrations between 0–400 µM in terms of larval survival, hair cell death, regeneration, and functional recovery. Following exposure to neomycin, we find that the emergence of newly functional hair cells outpaces cellular regeneration, likely due to the maturation of ototoxin-resistant hair cells that survive treatment. Furthermore, hair cells of 4 dpf larvae exhibit faster recovery compared to 3 dpf larvae. Our data suggest that the rapid functional maturation of ototoxin-resistant hair cells limits the effectiveness of chemical-based methods to disrupt lateral line function. Furthermore, we show that repeated neomycin treatments can continually ablate lateral line hair cells between 3–4 dpf in larval zebrafish.