Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Aminoglycosides in the Intensive Care Unit: What's New in Population PK Modeling?

Version 1 : Received: 14 April 2021 / Approved: 15 April 2021 / Online: 15 April 2021 (13:10:47 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Duong, A.; Simard, C.; Wang, Y.L.; Williamson, D.; Marsot, A. Aminoglycosides in the Intensive Care Unit: What Is New in Population PK Modeling? Antibiotics 2021, 10, 507. Duong, A.; Simard, C.; Wang, Y.L.; Williamson, D.; Marsot, A. Aminoglycosides in the Intensive Care Unit: What Is New in Population PK Modeling? Antibiotics 2021, 10, 507.

Journal reference: Antibiotics 2021, 10, 507
DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics10050507

Abstract

Background Although aminoglycosides are often used as treatment for Gram-Negative infections, optimal dosing regimens remains unclear, especially in ICU patients. This is due to a large between- and within-subject variability in the aminoglycosides’ pharmacokinetics in this population. Objective The review provides comprehensive data on the pharmacokinetics of aminoglycosides in patients hospitalized in ICU by summarizing all published PopPK models in ICU patients for amikacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin. The objective was to determine the presence of a consensus on the structural model used, significant covariates included, and therapeutic targets considered during dosing regimen simulations. Methods A literature search was conducted from the Medline/PubMed database, using the terms: ‘amikacin’, ’gentamicin’, ’tobramycin’, ‘pharmacokinetic(s)’, nonlinear mixed effect’, population’, ‘intensive care’ and ‘critically ill’. Results Nineteen articles were retained where amikacin, gentamicin and tobramycin pharmacokinetics were described in six, eleven and five models, respectively. Two-compartment model best described amikacin and tobramycin pharmacokinetics, whereas one-compartment model majorly described gentamicin pharmacokinetics. The most recurrent significant covariates were renal clearance and bodyweight. Across all aminoglycosides, mean interindividual variability in clearance and volume of distribution were 41.6% and 22.0%, respectively. A common consensus for an optimal dosing regimen for each aminoglycoside was not reached. Conclusion This review showed models developed for amikacin, from 2015 until now and for gentamicin and tobramycin from the past decades. Despite growing challenges of external evaluation, the latter should be more considered during model development. Further research including new covariates, additional simulated dosing regimens and external validation should be considered to better understand aminoglycosides pharmacokinetics in ICU patients.

Keywords

Aminoglycosides, population pharmacokinetic modeling, intensive care unit, critically ill

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