REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0515.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: antioxidant supplements; ROS; oxidative stress analysis; metabolic diseases
Online: 30 January 2023 (02:46:04 CET)
Cells produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) as by-products of metabolism, which can give rise to a two-sided effect on the body under balanced and imbalanced oxidant homeostasis conditions. Antioxidant supplements exert their beneficial efficacy in the treatment of metabolic diseases only when the oxidant homeostasis is imbalanced with the over-production of ROS. Over-supplementation of antioxidant(s) can also cause an imbalanced oxidant homeostasis to exert detriments to the induction of metabolic diseases. This commentary raises a concern that prior to precise supplementation of antioxidants, an establishment of oxidant homeostasis status is required in avoiding an imbalanced oxidant homeostasis in vivo. In searching for valid oxidant stress makers, 3-Nitrotyrosine seems to fit in with the selection criteria and its quantification can be correlated with the degree of oxidative stress in vivo.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0393.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Metabolism; Inflammation; uric acid; hyperuricemia; monosodium urate crystal; gout
Online: 16 December 2020 (08:30:53 CET)
Hyperuricemia is a risk factor for gout. It has been well observed that a large proportion of hyperuricemia individuals have never had a gout attack(s), while some patients with gout can have a normuricemia. This raises a puzzle of the real role of serum uric acid (SUA) in the occurrence of gout attacks. As the molecule of uric acid has its dual effects in vivo with antioxidant property as well as being an inflammatory promoter, it has been placed in a delicate position in balancing metabolisms. Gout seems to be a multifactorial metabolic disease and its pathogenesis should not rely solely on hyperuricemia or MSU crystal. This critical review aims to unfold the mechanisms of the SUA role participating in gout development. It also discusses some key elements which are prerequisite for the formation of gout in association with the current therapeutic regime. The compilation should be helpful in precisely fighting for a cure of gout clinically and pharmaceutically.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0034.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: transformer; cloud detection; remote-sensing images
Online: 1 November 2023 (08:29:14 CET)
Cloud detection in remote sensing images is a crucial preprocessing step that efficiently identifies and extracts cloud-covered areas within the images, ensuring the precision and reliability of subsequent analyses and applications. Given the diversity of clouds and the intricacies of the surface, distinguishing the boundaries between thin clouds and the underlying surface is a major challenge in cloud detection. To address these challenges, an advanced cloud detection method, CloudformerV3, is presented in this paper. The proposed method employs a multi-scale adapter to incorporate dark and bright channel prior information into the model's backbone, enhancing the model's ability to capture prior information and multi-scale details from remote sensing images. Additionally, multi-level large window attention is utilized, enabling high-resolution feature maps and low-resolution feature maps to mutually focus and subsequently merge during the resolution recovery phase. This facilitates the establishment of connections between different levels of feature maps and offers comprehensive contextual information for the model's decoder. Experimental results on the GF1_WHU dataset demonstrate that the method introduced in this paper exhibits superior detection accuracy when compared to state-of-the-art cloud detection models. Furthermore, enhanced detection performance is achieved along cloud edges and with respect to thin clouds, showcasing the efficacy of the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0040.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: hash embedding; deep learning; attribute information; entity coding
Online: 2 December 2022 (04:23:37 CET)
Most machine learning and deep learning algorithms can only use low-dimensional data as input, but the data that must be processed in practical applications is diverse and irregular. There are two main problems with big dynamic data. (1) The size of the embedding table grows linearly with the vocabulary size, resulting in massive memory consumption. (2) For different newly added vocabularies. To solve these two problems, this paper proposes a novel embedding algorithm that can learn attribute associations with entities based on deep and hash algorithms. Taking movie data as an example, the encoding method and the specific flow of the algorithm are presented in detail, and the effect of dynamic reuse of data models is realized. Compared with the four existing embedding algorithms which can fuse entity attribute information, the deep hash embedding algorithm proposed in this paper has obvious optimization of time and space complexity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1823.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: 3D object detection; distance features; SA layer enhancement
Online: 30 October 2023 (06:34:05 CET)
With increasing demand from unmanned driving and robotics, more attention has been paid to point cloud-based 3D object accurate detection technology. However, due to the sparseness and irregularity of the point cloud, the most critical problem is how to utilize the relevant features more efficiently. In this paper, we proposed a point-based object detection enhancement network to improve the detection accuracy in the 3D scenes understanding based on the distance features. Firstly, the distance features are extracted from the raw point sets and fused with the raw features about reflectivity of the point cloud to maximizing the use of information in point cloud. Secondly, we enhanced the distance features and raw features that we collectively refer to them as self-features of the key points in Set Abstraction (SA) layers with the self-attention mechanism, so that the foreground points can be better distinguished from the background points. Finally, we revised the group aggregation module in SA layers to enhance the feature aggregation effect of key points. We conducted experiments on the KITTI dataset and nuScenes dataset and the results show the enhancement method proposed in this paper has excellent performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1731.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: WSN; Security; Key distribution; Cryptography
Online: 26 June 2023 (03:23:13 CEST)
Wireless sensor networks are usually applied in hostile areas where nodes are easy to be moni-tored and captured by adversary. Key distribution is an essential primitive to provide most of security mechanism. However, the characteristic of limited resources of sensors restricts the direct use of conventional key distribution schemes. In this paper, a complete security key distribution scheme based on asymmetric cryptography technology is proposed in both static and mobile scenarios. Mutual authentication is guaranteed using challenge-response mechanism. The per-formance evaluation and security analysis show that the proposed scheme with low complexity not only provides better security for wireless sensor networks, but also reduces storage overhead and key exposure risks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1727.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Tail water level prediction; Backwater effect; LSTM; Xiangjiaba hydropower station
Online: 26 September 2023 (07:08:44 CEST)
Accurate forecast of tail water level (TWL) is of great importance for the safe and economic operation and management of hydropower stations. The predictive performance is significantly influenced by the backwater effect of downstream hydropower stations and tributaries, but the explicit quantification method of the backwater effect is lacked. In this study, a deep learning model based forecasting framework for TWL predictions is established and applied to forecast TWL of Xiangjiaba (XJB) hydropower stations, which is influenced by the backwater effect of downstream tributaries including Hengjiang River (HJR) and Minjiang River (MJR). Firstly, the lag time of the backwater effect of HJR and MJR is analyzed based on the permutation importance. The results demonstrate that the lag time of backwater effect on the TWL of XJB is 5-7 hours for the HJR and 1-2 hours for the MJR. Then, the runoff thresholds of the HJR and MJR for impacting the TWL of the XJB station are obtained by scenario comparison, and the results show that the thresholds of HJR and MJR are 700 m3/s and 7000 m3/s respectively. Finally, the deep learning methods based TWL forecasting model is established based on the lag time and threshold analysis. The model is used to forecast the TWL in future 48 hours. The results show that the forecasting model has a good predictive performance with 98.22% of absolute errors less than 20 cm. The mean absolute error over the validation dataset is 5.27 cm and the maximum absolute error is 63.35 cm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0550.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: stigma; cancer patients; Malaysia; Malay version of the Shame and Stigma Scale; reliability; validity
Online: 31 August 2022 (15:49:35 CEST)
Assessment of stigma among cancer patients is of utmost importance as stigma may lead to various psychological sequelae and lower quality of life. This study aimed to translate the English version of the Shame and Stigma Scale (SSS) into Malay and validate the Malay version of the SSS (SSS-M) among cancer patients in Malaysia. Initially, concurrent translation and back translation of the SSS-M was performed, and face and content validity were assessed. Then, the SSS-M was administered to a total of 234 patients of mixed types of cancer to assess its reliability (internal consistency and test-retest reliability), construct validity (convergent and discriminant validity), exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The SSS-M total score registered good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α of 0.886) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.846, p < 0.001). EFA and CFA confirmed that the SSS-M consisted of 20 items in 5 domains. Its convergent and discriminant validity were achieved. Hence, the SSS-M demonstrated good psychometric properties and is available for use to assess stigma among cancer patients in Malaysia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0145.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: methyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate; oxidative stress; apoptosis; neuroprotection; nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2
Online: 15 August 2016 (10:42:05 CEST)
This study investigated the neuroprotective effects of methyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (MDHB) against t-butylhydroperoxide(TBHP) induced oxidative damage in SH-SY5Y (human neuroblastoma cells) and the underlying mechanisms. SH-SY5Y were cultured in DMEM+10% FBS for 24 hours and pretreated with different concentrations of MDHB or N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) for 4 hours prior to the addition of 40 μM TBHP for 24 hours. Cell viability was analyzed using the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. An annexin V-FITC assay was used to detect cell apoptosis rate. The 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay was used to determine intracellular ROS levels. The activities of antioxidative enzymes (GSH-Px and SOD) were measured using commercially available kits. The oxidative DNA damage marker 8-OHdG was detected using ELISA. Western blotting was used to determine the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase 3, p-Akt and Akt proteins in treated SH-SY5Y cells. Our results showed that MDHB is an effective neuroprotective compound that can mitigate oxidative stress and inhibit apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells