ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0871.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: Lacquer Lian; Py-GC/MS; Urushi; Boiled tung oil
Online: 10 August 2023 (14:41:29 CEST)
Seven pieces of Lacquer Lian from Warring States Period to Yuan Dynasty were analyzed by means of cross-section observation, Raman spectroscopy (RS) and thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography/ mass spectroscopy (THM-Py-GC/MS). The results demonstrate that Lacquer Lian was consisted by three layers, including pigment layer, undercoat layer and ground layer, and lacquering techniques had undergone minimal changes from Warring States Period to Yuan Dynasty, the red mineral pigment was cinnabar, the lacquer sap was urushi. Furthermore, Boiled tung oil was found in the ground layer of lacquerwares from Song Dynasty and Yuan Dynasty.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0428.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: Lacquer Lian; Py-GC/MS; Boiled tung oil; Chinese lacquer
Online: 8 October 2023 (07:17:43 CEST)
Seven pieces of Lacquer Lian from Warring States Period to Yuan Dynasty (475 BC- 1368 AD) were analyzed by means of cross-section observation, Raman spectroscopy (RS) and thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography/ mass spectroscopy (Py-GC/MS). The results demonstrated that Lacquer Lian was consisted by three layers, including pigment layer in the surface, undercoat layer in the middle and ground layer, the red mineral pigment was cinnabar, and mixture of Chinese lacquer and drying oil was applied as main organic materials. Although lacquering techniques had undergone minimal changes from Warring States Period to Yuan Dynasty, the species of drying oil had changed based on the fact that boiled tung oil was found in the ground layer of lacquerwares from Song Dynasty and Yuan Dynasty. The present research provided direct evidence for the inheritance and development of Chinese lacquer technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0584.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: salt rock; creep; damage; fractional derivative; acoustic emission
Online: 30 July 2018 (11:15:31 CEST)
The use of salt rock for underground radioactive waste disposal facilities requires a comprehensive analysis of creep-damage process in salt rock. A computer-controlled creep setup is employed to carry out a creep test of salt rock lasted as long as 359 days under a constant uniaxial stress. The AE space-time evolution and energy releasing characteristics during creep test are studied in the meantime. A new creep-damage model is proposed on the basis of fractional derivative by combining the AE statistical regularity. It indicates that the AE data in non-decay creep process of salt rock can be divided into three stages. Furthermore, the parameters of new creep-damage model are determined by Quasi-Newton method. The fitting analysis suggests that the creep-damage model based on fractional derivative in this paper provides a precise description of full creep regions in salt rock.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1950.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: broiler; welfare; mobility; YOLOv5; semi-supervised learning; neo-deepsort
Online: 28 July 2023 (10:31:34 CEST)
Mobility is a vital welfare indicator which may influence broilers’ daily activities. Classical broiler mobility assessment methods are laborious and cannot provide timely insights into their conditions. Here, we proposed a semi-supervised Deep Learning (DL) model, YOLOv5, combined with Deep Sort algorithm conjoined with our newly proposed algorithm, Neo-Deep Sort, for individual broiler mobility tracking. Initially, 1,650 labeled images from five days were employed to train the YOLOv5 model. Through semi-supervised learning (SSL), this narrowly trained model was then used for pseudo-labeling 2,160 images, of which 2,153 were successfully labeled. Thereafter, the YOLOv5 model was fine-tuned on the newly labeled images. Lastly, the trained YOLOv5 and the Neo-Deep Sort algorithm were applied to detect and track 28 broilers in two pens and categorized them in terms of hourly and daily traveled distances and speeds. SSL helped in increasing the YOLOv5 model’s mean Average Precision (mAP), in detecting birds, from 81% to 98%. As compared with the manually measured covered distances of broilers, the combined model provided individual broiler's hourly moved distances with a validation accuracy of about 80%. Eventually, individual and flock level mobilities were quantified while overcoming the occlusion, false and miss detection issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1123.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Pi-starvation stress; mobile mRNA; phloem; systemic signaling
Online: 15 August 2023 (11:49:14 CEST)
Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant macronutrient; however, its availability is often limited in soils. Plants have evolved complex mechanisms for efficient phosphate (Pi) absorption, which are responsive to changes in external and internal Pi concentration, and orchestrated through local and systemic responses. To explore these systemic Pi responses, here, we identified AtMYB44 as a phloem-mobile mRNA, an Arabidopsis homolog of Cucumis sativus MYB44, that is responsive to the Pi-starvation stress. qRT-PCR assays revealed that AtMYB44 was up-regulated and expressed in both shoot and root in response to Pi-starvation stress. The atmyb44 mutant displayed higher shoot and root biomass, compared to wild-type plants, under Pi-starvation conditions. Interestingly, the expression of PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER1;2 (PHT1;2) and PHT1;4 was enhanced in atmyb44 in response to a Pi-starvation treatment. A split-root assay showed that AtMYB44 expression was systemically regulated, under Pi-starvation conditions and, in atmyb44, systemic controls on PHT1;2 and PHT1;4 expression were moderately disrupted. Heterografting assays confirmed graft transmission of AtMYB44 transcripts, and PHT1;2 and PHT1;4 expression was decreased in heterografted atmyb44 rootstocks. Taken together, our findings support the hypothesis that mobile AtMYB44 mRNA serves as a long-distance Pi response signal, which negatively regulates Pi transport and utilization in Arabidopsis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0332.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Angiogenesis; Pulmonary hypertension; Endothelium; PHD2 Deficiency; Hypoxia
Online: 22 March 2021 (15:51:47 CET)
Endothelial autocrine signaling is essential to maintain vascular hemostasis. There is limited in-formation about the role of endothelial autocrine signaling in regulating severe pulmonary vas-cular remodeling during the onset of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). In this study, we employed the first severe PAH mouse model, Egln1Tie2Cre (Tie2Cre-mediated disruption of Egln1) mice, to identify the novel autocrine signaling mediating the pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (PVECs) hyperproliferation and the pathogenesis of PAH. PVECs isolated from Egln1Tie2Cre lung expressed upregulation of many growth factors or angiocrine factors such as CXCL12, and exhib-ited hyperproliferative phenotype in coincident with upregulation of proliferation specific tran-scriptional factor FoxM1. Treatment of CXCL12 on PVECs increased FoxM1 expression, which was blocked by CXCL12 receptor CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 in culture human PVECs. Endo-thelial specific deletion of Cxcl12 (Egln1/Cxcl12Tie2 Cre) or AMD3100 treatment in Egln1Tie2Cre mice downregulated FoxM1 expression in vivo. We then generated and characterized a novel mouse model with endothelial specific FoxM1 deletion in Egln1Tie2Cre mice (Egln1/Foxm1Tie2Cre), and found that endothelial FoxM1 deletion reduced pulmonary vascular remodeling and right ventricular systolic pressure. Together, our study identified a novel mechanism of endothelial autocrine sig-naling in regulating PVECs hyperproliferation and pulmonary vascular remodeling in PAH.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1707.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mining And Mineral Processing Keywords: coal bump; stiffness theory; failure criterion; stiffness criterion; USCS; HSZ; LSZ; NSC
Online: 26 October 2023 (11:27:22 CEST)
An analysis of the stiffness theory reveals that coal mass compression bumps occur only when both the failure criterion and the stiffness criterion are simultaneously satisfied. Then a new structural factor called uneven stiffness coal seam structure (USCS) is proposed, which consists of an uneven stiffness coal seam along with continuous roof and floor. The USCS serves the dual functions of pressure concentration and stiffness reduction. The former facilitates stress concentration from the low stiffness zone (LSZ) to the high stiffness zone (HSZ), thus raising the risk (rF) of failure. The latter reduces the stiffness of the surrounding rock of the HSZ, allowing the system to meet the stiffness criterion even with a hard roof, thereby reconciling the contradiction between the stiffness theory and engineering experience and raising the risk (rI) of instability. The HSZ of the USCS, including thinning zones, bifurcating areas, magmatic intrusion areas, and remnant pillar affected areas, is more susceptible to coal bump incidents than a conventional coal seam. Mechanical analysis and simple numerical simulations validate the pressure concentration and stiffness reduction functions of the USCS. The results demonstrate the following: 1) The normal stress of the HSZ positively correlates with ER, HR, KH, and SL, but negatively correlates with KL and SH; The stiffness of surrounding rock of the HSZ negatively correlates with HR, KH, SL, and SH, but positively correlates with ER and KL. 2) Failures within the HSZ of the USCS enables the roof strata to release bending deformation energy without undergoing fracturing. 3) The alignment between the HSZ of an existing USCS and the HSZ of an artificial USCS advancing with the working face intensifies stress concentration and reduces stiffness, thereby significantly increases the risk (rCB) of coal bump. By applying the stiffness theory and relevant USCS findings, new explanations can be provided for engineering phenomena such as the time-delayed coal bumps, the inefficient pressure relief in ultra thick coal seams, and the “microseism deficiency” observed prior to certain coal bumps.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0448.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: IR; laser printing; ITO; solid resist
Online: 29 September 2022 (03:27:46 CEST)
Deposition/printing of materials with sub-1 μm precision and size (cross sections) is required for optical and electrical micro-devices. Crystalline c-ITO (Indium tin oxide) nanostructures were patterned on glass with a precision that formed gaps of 20-50 nm between individual disks or lines of ∼ 250 nm diameter or width. The absorbed energy density [J/cm3] followed the second order dependence on pulse energy. This facilitated high resolution and precision for nanoscale laser writing at the 515 nm laser wavelength. Patterns for optical elements such as circular gratings and micro-disks were laser printed using ITO as a resist. Unexposed amorphous a-ITO was chemically removed in aqueous 1% vol. HF solution. This use of a-ITO as solid-resist is promising for metamaterial and micro-optical applications.