ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2050.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Serial dual-channel detection; Faster RCNN; Transfer learning; Object classification; End to end system
Online: 28 June 2023 (15:29:49 CEST)
The phenomenon of seat occupancy in university libraries is a prevalent issue. However, existing solutions, such as software-based seat reservations and sensors-based occupancy detection, have proven to be inadequate in effectively addressing this problem. In this study, we propose a novel approach: a serial dual-channel object detection model based on Faster RCNN. Furthermore, we develop a user-friendly web interface and mobile APP to create a computer vision-based platform for library seat occupancy detection. To construct our dataset, we combine real-world data collection with UE5 virtual reality. The results of our tests also demonstrate that the utilization of personalized virtual dataset significantly enhances the performance of the convolutional neural network (CNN) in dedicated scenarios. The serial dual-channel detection model comprises three essential steps. Firstly, we employ Faster RCNN algorithm to determine whether a seat is occupied by an individual. Subsequently, we utilize an object classification algorithm based on transfer learning, to classify and identify images of unoccupied seats. This eliminates the need for manual judgment regarding whether a person is suspected of occupying a seat. Lastly, the web interface and APP provide seat information to librarians and students respectively, enabling comprehensive services. By leveraging deep learning methodologies, this research effectively addresses the issue of seat occupancy in library systems. It significantly enhances the accuracy of seat occupancy recognition, reduces the computational resources required for training CNNs, and greatly improves the efficiency of library seat management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1644.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: geochemical anomaly; anomaly extraction; anomaly evaluation; geological connotation meth-od(GCM)
Online: 23 May 2023 (10:40:15 CEST)
Exploration geochemistry is an essential method for discover new mineral areas. However, with the increase of exploration degree, relying solely on "strong, broad and multiple" anomalies to guide exploration work has become increasingly challenging. How to effectively identify valuable geochemical information remains a hot and frontier topic in the field. Thus we proposed a geological connotation method (GCM) that provides an objective geological connotation to big geochemical data based on regional geological and geochemical characteristics of known typical deposits. There are mainly two types of geochemical anomalies expression: (1) the metallogenic intensity anomaly map (MIAM) obtained by accumulating specific anomalous elements, which directly reflects the degree of material exchange and superposition modification during mineralization; (2) the metallogenic type anomaly map (MTAM) obtained by accumulating the mineralization concentration coefficients of elements related to a certain genetic type, which can highlight the anomalies caused by a specific genetic type of deposit. These have been tried and applied in the exploration of the Gangdese, North Himalayas, Nyenchen Tanglha and other metallogenic belts in Tibet, and have made a series of breakthroughs in mineral resources exploration represented by Qulong, Zhunuo and Zhaxikang. The advantage of GCM is that it not only solves the problem of missing ore in the verification of "strong, broad and multiple" anomalies, but also can quickly and preferably delineate the strongest mineralized areas, and better overcome the influence of numerous factors on the anomalies, such as the chemical nature of elements, redox environment, geomorphic landscape and weathering and stripping, so that the anomaly evaluation becomes simple, objective and highlights the regularity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0342.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: long COVID; PASC; long haulers; NETosis; T cell; NK cell; DC; neutrophil; macrophage
Online: 24 October 2022 (02:12:06 CEST)
A significant number of persons with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) experience persistent, recurrent, or new symptoms several months after the acute stage of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2) infection. This phenomenon, termed Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC) or Long COVID, is associated with high viral titers during acute infection, a persistently hyperactivated immune system, tissue injury by NETosis-induced micro-thrombofibrosis (NETinjury), microbial translocation, complement deposition, fibrotic macrophages, the presence of auto-antibodies, and lymphopenic immune environments. Here, we review the current literature on the immunological imbalances that occur during PASC. Specifically, we focus on data supporting common immunopathogenesis and tissue injury mechanisms shared across this highly heterogenous disorder including NETosis, coagulopathy, and fibrosis. Mechanisms include changes in leukocyte subsets/functions, fibroblast activation, cytokine imbalances, lower cortisol, autoantibodies, co-pathogen reactivation, and residual immune activation driven by persistent viral antigens and/or microbial translocation. Taken together, we develop the premise that SARS-CoV-2 infection results in PASC as a consequence of acute and/or persistent single or multiple organ injury mediated by PASC determinants to include degree of host response (inflammation, NETinjury), residual viral antigen (persistent antigen) and exogenous factors (microbial translocation). Determinants of PASC may be amplified by co-morbidities, age, and sex. Keywords: long COVID, PASC, long haulers, NETosis, T cell, NK cell, DC, neutrophil,
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1562.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Terms—antivirus; fileless malware; dynamic analysis; memory analysis
Online: 23 August 2023 (07:43:39 CEST)
The first appearance of viruses can date back to the late last century. As an effective form of malware, viruses reside in the permanent storage of target hosts. Before a virus can execute, that must load into memory from the persistent storage included in the associated file. Due to the reliable destructive power of viruses, many mechanisms have been developed to defend computer systems against these hazardous threats. Antivirus software is one of the most famous and popular among these mechanisms. Most antivirus software uses static analysis (signature-based) technology on files stored in permanent storage, such as hard disks or USB flashes, to detect viruses hidden in files. Fileless malware was developed to enhance the survivability of malware by circumventing detection. Fileless malware only exists in the target hosts’ memory, not files. Antivirus software cannot even access the fileless malware code, much less analyze it, since it may be performed in memory directly without needing to load it from a disk. As a result, it is difficult for an antivirus engine to defend a system against fileless malware attacks. This paper proposes a kernel-based solution called Check-on-Execution (CoE) to detect fileless malware on a Linux system. When a program is going to execute a piece of code in a writable and executable memory area of a process, CoE suspends the code execution first. Coe retrieves the code from memory, packs the code with an ELF header to create an ELF file, and uses VirusTotal to check the file to prevent a Linux system from executing fileless malware. Experimental results show that CoE noticeably enhances the ability of a Linux system to defend itself again fileless malware. CoE is also suitable for protecting a system from shell code injection attacks, such as buffer and heap overflow attacks. It is capable of handling even packed malware. But in this paper, we only focus on fileless malware.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2207.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Bovine; Bioinformatics; Phospholipase D family member 6; Testes; Spermatogonial stem cells
Online: 30 June 2023 (14:45:51 CEST)
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are the only primitive spermatogonial cells in males that can naturally transmit genetic information to their offspring and replicate throughout their lives. Phospholipase D family member 6 (PLD6) has recently been found to be a surface marker for SSCs in mice and boars; however, it has not been validated in cattle. The results of RT-PCR and qRT-PCR found that the relative expression of PLD6 gene in the testicular tissues of 2-year-old Simmental calves was significantly higher than that of 6-month-old calves. Immunofluorescent staining further verified the expression of PLD6 protein in bovine spermatogenic cells like germ cell marker VASA. Based on multiple bioinformatic databases, PLD6 is a conservative protein which has high homology with mouse Q5SWZ9 protein. It is closely involved in the normal functioning of the reproductive system. Molecular dynamics simulation analyzed the binding of PLD6 as a phospholipase to cardiolipin (CL), and PLD6-CL complex showed high stability. The protein interaction network analysis showed that there is a significant relationship between PLD6 and piRNA binding protein. PLD6 acts as an endonuclease and participates in piRNA production. In addition, PLD6 in bovine and mouse testes has a similar expression pattern with the spermatogonium-related genes VASA and PIWIL2. In conclusion, these analyses imply that PLD6 has a relatively high expression in bovine testes and could be used as a biomarker for spermatogenic cells including SSCs.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; acute kidney injury; angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2); transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSSs)
Online: 23 February 2020 (15:42:24 CET)
Purpose: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a severe symptom of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), especially for patients in a critical condition.This study explored the potential mechanism of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on AKI at the single-cell level. Methods: 15 normal human kidney samples were collected and analyzed using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq). Subsequently, we analyzed the components and proportions of kidney cells expressing the host cellular receptor ACE2 and the key protease TMPRSSs family, and analyzed the expression differences in Occidental and Asian populations. Results: We drafted the currently available world's largest human kidney cell atlas with 42,589 cells and identified 19 clusters through unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis. ACE2 and TMPRSSs genes were significantly co-expressed in podocytes and proximal convoluted tubules as potential host cells targeted by SARS-CoV-2. Comparative analysis showed that ACE2 expression in kidney cells was no less than that in the lung, esophagus, small intestine and colon, suggesting that the kidney may be an important target organ for SARS-CoV-2. In addition, given the high expression of ACE2 and kidney disease-related genes in Occidental donors relative to Asian donors, Occidental populations with SARS-CoV-2 infection might be a higher risk of of kidney injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0488.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: chemoradiation; preoperative; neoadjuvant; TN/HER-2+ phenotype; pathological response; breast cancer
Online: 29 August 2022 (10:47:34 CEST)
Primary systemic treatment (PST) downsizes the tumor and improves pathological response. The aim of this study is to analyze the feasibility and tolerance of primary concurrent radio-chemotherapy (PCRT) in breast cancer patients. Patients with localized TN/HER2+ tumors were enrolled in this prospective study. Radiation is delivered concomitantly during the first 3 weeks of chemotherapy, and it is based on a 15 fractions scheme (40.5Gy/2.7Gy per fraction to whole breast and nodal levels I-IV. Chemotherapy is based on Pertuzumab-Trastuzumab-Paclitaxel followed by anthracyclines in HER2+ and CBDCA-Paclitaxel followed by anthracyclines in TN breast cancers patients. 58 patients were enrolled, 25 patients (43%) were TN and 33 patients HER2+ (57%). With a median follow-up of 24.2 months, 56 patients completed PCRT and surgery. A total of 35 patients (87.5%) achieved >90% loss of invasive carcinoma cell in the surgical specimen. The 70.8% and the 53.1% of patients with TN and HER-2+ subtype respectively achieved complete pathological response (pCR). This is the first study of concurrent neoadjuvant treatment in breast cancer in which three strategies are applied simultaneously: fractionation of RT in 15 sessions, adjustment of CT to tumor phenotype and local planning by PET. The pCR rates are encouraging.