ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0285.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Eddy current driver–pickup sensor; surface crack; depth measurement; thin-skin regime; non-destructive testing.
Online: 13 August 2021 (08:27:46 CEST)
Electromagnetic eddy current sensors are commonly used to identify and quantify the surface notches of metals. However, the unintentional tilt of eddy current sensors affects results of size profiling, particularly for the depth profiling. In this paper, based on the eddy current thin-skin regime, a revised algorithm has been proposed for the analytical voltage or impedance of a tilted driver–pickup eddy current sensor scanning across a long ideal notch. Considering the resolution of the measurement, the bespoke driver–pickup, also termed as transmitter-receiver (T-R) sensor is designed with a small mean radius of 1 mm. Besides, the T-R sensor is connected to the electromagnetic instrument and controlled by a scanning stage with high spatial travel resolution , with a limit of 0.2 μm and selected as 0.25 mm. Experiments have been out on the voltage imaging of an aluminium sheet with 7 machined long notches of different depths using T-R sensor under different tilt angles. By fitting the measured voltage (both real and imaginary part) with proposed analytical algorithms, the depth profiling of notches is less affected by the tilt angle of sensors. From the results, the depth of notches can be retrieved within a deviation of 10 % for tilt angles up to 60 degrees.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0157.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Multi-frequency eddy current; lift-off inversion; coating thickness; non-destructive testing; multi-layer conductor.
Online: 8 January 2021 (13:08:37 CET)
Defect detection in ferromagnetic substrates is often hampered by non-magnetic coating thickness variation when using conventional eddy current testing technique. The lift-off distance between the sample and the sensor is one of the main obstacles for the thickness measurement of non-magnetic coatings on ferromagnetic substrates when using the eddy current testing technique. Based on the eddy current thin-skin effect and the lift-off insensitive inductance (LII), a simplified iterative algorithm is proposed for reducing the lift-off variation effect using a multi-frequency sensor. Compared to the previous techniques on compensating the lift-off error (e.g., the lift-off point of intersection) while retrieving the thickness, the simplified inductance algorithms avoid the computation burden of integration, which are used as embedded algorithms for the online retrieval of lift-offs via each frequency channel. The LII is determined by the dimension and geometry of the sensor, thus eliminating the need for empirical calibration. The method is validated by means of experimental measurements of the inductance of coatings with different materials and thicknesses on ferrous substrates (dual-phase alloy). The error of the calculated coating thickness has been controlled to within 3 % for an extended lift-off range of up to 10 mm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0278.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Eddy current sensor; lift-off measurement; thickness measurement; non-destructive testing; sample-independence.
Online: 9 November 2020 (11:11:44 CET)
For the electromagnetic eddy current testing, various methods have been proposed for reducing the lift-off error on the measurement of samples. In this paper, instead of eliminating the measurement error caused by the lift-off effect, an algorithm has been proposed to directly measure the lift-off distance between the sensor and non-magnetic conductive plates. The algorithm is based on a sample-independent inductance (SII) feature. That is, under high working frequencies, the inductance is found sensitive to the lift-off distance and independent of the test piece under an optimal single high working frequency (43.87 kHz). Furthermore, the predicted lift-off distance is used for the thickness prediction of the non-magnetic conductive samples using an iterative method. Considering the eddy current skin depth, the thickness prediction is operated under a single lower frequency (0.20 kHz). As the inductance has different sensitivities to the lift-off and thickness, the prediction error of the sample thickness is different from that of the lift-off distance. From the experiments on three different nonmagnetic samples – aluminium, copper, and brass, the maximum prediction error of the lift-off distance and sample thickness is 1.1 mm and 5.42 % respectively at the lift-off of 12.0 mm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0154.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: electromagnetic sensing; lift-off; eddy current; magnetic permeability; non-destructive testing
Online: 6 August 2021 (08:36:46 CEST)
Electromagnetic sensing has been used for diverse applications of non-destructive testing, including the surface inspection, measurement of properties, object characterization. However, the measurement accuracy could be significantly influenced by the lift-off between sensors and samples. To address the issue caused by lift-offs, various strategies have been proposed for the permeability measurement of ferromagnetic steels, which mainly involves different sensor designs and signal features (e.g., the zero-crossing feature). In this paper, a single high-frequency scenario for the permeability retrieval is introduced. By combining the signal of two sensing pairs, the retrieval of magnetic permeability is less affected by the lift-off of sensors. Unlike the previous strategy on reducing the lift-off effect (directly taking the phase term out of the integration) using the Dodd-Deeds analytical method, the proposed method is based on a high-frequency linear feature of the phase term. Therefore, this method has the merit of high accuracy and fast processing for the permeability retrieval (a simplified version of Dodd-Deeds analytical formulas after the integration). Experimental measurement has been carried out on the impedance measurement of designed sensors interrogating ferromagnetic dual-phase steels. For sensor lift-offs of up to 10 mm, the error of the permeability retrieval is controlled within 4 % under the optimal frequency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0387.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Eddy current testing; lift-off invariance; property measurement; multi-frequency; non-destructive testing.
Online: 22 April 2021 (09:16:48 CEST)
Eddy current testing can be used to interrogate steels but it is hampered by the lift-off distance of the sensor. Previously, the lift-off point of intersection (LOI) feature has been found for the pulsed eddy current (PEC) testing. In this paper, a lift-off invariant inductance (LII) feature is proposed for the multi-frequency eddy current (MEC) testing, which merely targets the ferromagnetic steels. That is, at a certain working frequency, the measured inductance signal is found nearly immune to the lift-off distance of the sensor. Such working frequency and inductance are termed as the lift-off invariant frequency (LIF) and LII. Through simulations and experimental measurements of different steels under the multi-frequency manner, the LII has been verified to be merely related to the sensor parameters and independent of different steels. By referring to the LIF of the test piece and using an iterative inverse solver, one of the steel properties (either the electrical conductivity or magnetic permeability) can be reconstructed with a high accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0237.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Eddy current testing; thickness measurement; finite-size; lift-off effect; non-destructive testing
Online: 9 February 2021 (12:04:32 CET)
In many advanced industrial applications, the thickness is a critical index, especially for metallic coatings. However, the variance of lift-off spacing between sensors and test pieces affects the measured voltage or impedance, which leads to unreliable results from the sensor. Massive research works have been proposed to address the lift-off issue, but few of them applies to the thickness measurement of planar metallic films with finite-size circular (disk) geometry. Previously, a peak-frequency feature from the swept-frequency inductance was used to compensate the measurement error caused by lift-offs, which was based on the slow-changing rate of impedance phase term in the Dodd-Deeds formulas. However, the phase of measured impedance is nearly invariant merely on a limited range of sample thicknesses and working frequencies. Besides, the frequency sweeping is time-consuming, where a recalibration is needed for different sensor setups applied to the online real-time measurement. In this paper, a single-frequency algorithm has been proposed, which is embedded in the measurement instrument for the online real-time retrieval of thickness. Owing to the single-frequency measurement strategy, the proposed method does not need to recalibrate for different sensor setups. The thickness retrieval is based on a triple-coil sensor (with one transmitter and two receivers). The thickness of metallic disk foils is retrieved from the measured electrical resistance of two transmitter-receiver sensing pairs. Experiments on materials of different electrical conductivities (from direct current), thicknesses and planar sizes (radii) have been carried out to verify the proposed method. The error for the thickness retrieval of conductive disk foils is controlled within 5 % for lift-offs up to 5 mm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0643.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Eddy current; lift-off; material-independent; permeability measurement; non-destructive testing
Online: 30 October 2020 (14:36:29 CET)
Eddy current sensors can be used to test the characteristics and measure the parameters of the conductive samples. As the main obstacle of the multi-frequency eddy current sensor, the lift-off distance affects the effectiveness and accuracy of the measurement. In this paper, a material-independent algorithm has been proposed for the restoration of the lift-off distance when using the multi-frequency eddy current sensor, which is based on the approximation under the thin-skin effect. Experiment testing on the performance of the proposed method is presented. Results show that from the dual-frequency inductance, the lift-off distance could be restored with a maximum error of 0.24 mm for the distance up to 12 mm. Besides, the derived lift-off distance is used for the inversion of the magnetic permeability. Based on a lift-off insensitive inductance (LII) feature, the magnetic permeability of steels can be inversed in an iterative manner, with an error of less than 0.6 % for the lift-off distance up to 12 mm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0152.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Eddy current testing; lift-off measurement; property measurement; non-destructive testing; dual-frequency eddy current (DEC) testing
Online: 7 October 2020 (09:26:06 CEST)
Lift-offs of the sensor could significantly affect the measurement signal and reconstruction of material properties when using the electromagnetic (inductive) eddy current sensor. Previously, various methods (including novel sensor designs, and features like zero-crossing frequency, lift-off point of intercept) have been used for eliminating the measurement error caused by the lift-off distance effect of the sensor. However, these approaches can only be applied for a small range of lift-off variations. In this paper, a linear relationship has been found between the sensor lift-off and ratio of dual-frequency eddy current signals, particularly under the high working dual frequencies. Based on this linear relationship, the lift-off variation can be reconstructed firstly with a small error of 2.5 % when its actual value is up to 10 mm (10.1 % for 20 mm). The reconstructed lift-off is used to further get the property of the material under a low single frequency. Experiments on different ferrous metals have been carried out for the testing of the reconstruction scheme. Since the inductance is more sensitive to the material property (and less sensitive to the lift-off) under low frequencies, the reconstruction error of the material property is much smaller than that of the lift-off, with 1.4 % under 12 mm (and 4.5 % under 20 mm).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0717.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Eddy current testing; thickness measurement; non-destructive testing; lift-off; real-time monitoring
Online: 29 September 2020 (15:05:41 CEST)
Previously, various techniques have been proposed for reducing the lift-off effect on the thickness measurement of the non-magnetic films, including the peak-frequency feature and phase feature in the Dodd-Deed analytical formulation. To realise a real-time feedback response on the thickness monitoring, the phase term in the Dodd-Deeds formulation must be taken off the integration. Previous methods were based on the slow change rate of the phase term when compared to the rest of the term – the magnitude term. However, the change rate of the phase term is still considerable for a range of working frequencies. In this paper, a high-frequency feature has been found. That is, the ratio between the imaginary and real part of the phase term is proportional to the integral variable under high frequencies. Based on this proportion relationship, the phase term has been taken out; and a thickness algorithm has been proposed. By combing the measured impedance from the custom-built sensor (three coils), the thickness of the metallic film can be reconstructed. Experiments have been carried out for the verification of the proposed scenario. Results show that the thickness of the metal film can be reconstructed with a small error of less than 2 %, and immune to a reasonable range of lift-offs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0217.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Eddy current sensor; defect orientation; angled crack, thin-skin regime; non-destructive testing.
Online: 9 December 2020 (10:57:15 CET)
Electromagnetic sensors have been used for inspecting small surface defects of metals. Based on the eddy-current thin-skin regime, a revised algorithm is proposed for a triple-coil drive-pickup eddy-current sensor scanning over long surface crack slots (10 mm) with different rotary angles. The method is validated by the voltage measurement of the designed EC sensor scanning over a benchmark (ferromagnetic) steel with surface defects of different depths and rotary angles. With an additional sensing coil for the designed EC sensor, the defect angle (or orientation) can be measured without spatially and coaxially rotating the excitation coil. By referring to the voltage change (due to the defect) diagram (voltage sum versus voltage different) of two sensing pairs, the rotary angle of the surface crack is retrieved with a maximum residual deviation of 3.5 %.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0491.v1
Subject: Keywords: Conductivity Invariance Phenomenon; Conductivity invariance lift-off; Sensor design; Eddy current testing; Electrical conductivity; Non-destructive testing
Online: 31 May 2020 (18:37:15 CEST)
Previously, a conductivity invariance phenomena (CIP) has been discovered – at a certain lift-off, the inductance change of the sensor due to a test sample is immune to conductivity variations, i.e. the inductance – lift-off curve passes through a common point at a certain lift-off, termed as conductivity invariance lift-off. However, this conductivity invariance lift-off is fixed for a particular sensor setup, which is not convenient for various sample conditions. In this paper, we propose using two parameters in the coil design – the horizontal and vertical distances between the transmitter and the receiver to control the conductivity invariance lift-off. The relationship between these two parameters and the conductivity invariance lift-off is investigated by simulation and experiments and it has been found that there is an approximate linear relationship between these two parameters and the conductivity invariance lift-off. This is useful for applications where the measurements have restrictions on lift-off, e.g. uneven coating thickness which limits the range of the lift-off of probe during the measurements. Therefore, based on this relationship, it can be easier to adjust the configuration of the probe for a better inspection of the test samples.