ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0008.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Liposarcoma; WGS; RNAseq; Methylation
Online: 4 January 2021 (10:36:13 CET)
Well differentiated liposarcoma (WD-LPS) is a relatively rare tumour, with less than 50 cases occurring per year in the UK. These tumours are both chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistant and present a significant treatment challenge requiring radical surgery. Little is known of the molecular landscape of these tumours and no current targets for molecular therapy exist. We aimed to carry out a comprehensive molecular characterisation of WD-LPS via whole genome sequencing, RNA-sequencing and methylation array analysis. A recurrent mutation within exon1 of FOXD4L3 was observed (chr9:70,918,189A>T; c.322A>T; p. Lys108Ter). Recurrent mutations were also observed in Wnt signalling, immunity, DNA repair and hypoxia-associated genes. Recurrent amplification of HGMA2 was observed, although this was in fact part of a general amplification of the region around this gene. Recurrent gene fusions in HGMA2, SDHA, TSPAN31 and MDM2 were also observed as well as consistent rearrangements between chromosome 6 and chromosome 12. Our study has demonstrated a recurrent mutation within FOXD4L3, which shows evidence of interaction with the PAX pathway to promote tumorigenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0283.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: DST; MGIT-960; WGS; cgMLST; SNP barcoding; phylogeny
Online: 17 December 2021 (08:20:58 CET)
Uncontrolled transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis, MTB) drug resistant strains is a challenge to control efforts of global tuberculosis programme. Due to increasing multi-drug resistant (MDR) cases in Arunachal Pradesh, a northeastern state of India, the tracking and tracing of these resistant MTB strains is crucial for infection control and spread of drug resistance. This study aims to correlate the phenotypic DST, genomic DST (gDST) and phylogenetic analysis of MDR-MTB strains in the region. Of total 200 suspected MDR-MTB isolates, 125(62.5%) were identified as MTB. MGIT-960 SIRE DST detected 71/125(56.8%) isolates as MDR/RR-MTB of which 22(30.9%) were detected resistant to second line drugs. Whole genome sequencing of 65 isolates and their gDST found Ser315Thr mutation in katG (35/45;77.8%) and Ser531Leu mutation in rpoB (21/41;51.2%) associated with drug resistance. SNP barcoding categorized the dataset with Lineage2 (41;63.1%) being predominant followed by Lineage3 (10;15.4%), Lineage1 (8;12.3%) and Lineage4 (6;9.2%) respectively. Phylogenetic assignment by cgMLST gave insights of two Beijing sub-lineages viz; 2.2.1 (SNP difference < 19) and 126.96.36.199 (SNP difference < 9) associated with recent ongoing transmission in Arunachal Pradesh. This study provides first insight in identifying the ongoing transmission of two virulent Beijing sub-lineages associated with TB drug resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0632.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: B. abortus; molecular epidemiology; MLVA; WGS-SNP; China
Online: 25 November 2020 (11:01:59 CET)
Brucella abortus is a facultative intracellular Gram-negative bacterium that causes chronic persistent infections in humans and livestock. In this study, conventional bio-typing, multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), and whole-genome sequencing-single-nucleotide polymorphism (WGS-SNP) were used to investigate the molecular epidemiology characteristics of Brucella abortus strains in China and their relationships to world lineages. A total of 100 strains were collected from 1953 to 2013, suggesting that B. abortus circulated in China in the past five decades. Moreover, most strains were mainly distributed in the northwest area. During this period, seven biovars were found, indicating that B. abortus displayed a high diversity of biovars and that the main epidemic areas are in the northern provinces. Strains have high genetic diversity, and bruce07 is the most helpful locus for genotyping of this population. Moreover, 17 MLVA-11 genotypes were found; 13 of them are of known genotypes and four are unassigned genotypes, indicating that B. abortus in this study had several geographic origins. Still, strains from unassigned genotypes may originate from China. Many shared MLVA-16 genotypes were observed in strains from the same provinces in Northern China, which confirmed a brucellosis outbreak within northern regions. WGS-SNP analysis showed that eight Chinese strains formed a ladder-like phylogram (C. Ⅶ) with strains from nine countries, including Uganda, Iraq, Russia, Georgia, Spain, Italy, Egypt, Mongolia, and China; strains were introduced to these countries from a single source. Notably, Chinese strains were closely related to strains from Russia and Mongolia; frequent animal (cattle) trade and exchanges may promote this process. We will provide new and insightful information for strength surveillance and control of B. abortus brucellosis in China.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0655.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: urinary tract infections; multi-drug resistance; biofilm; virulence genes; WGS
Online: 27 September 2020 (02:40:41 CEST)
Background: Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is the most common cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs). They are often multidrug-resistant (MDR), making them challenging to treat. Additionally, virulence mechanisms as biofilm formation are associated with persistent UTIs. Aims: To reveal a possible association between patients’ risk factors and UTIs caused by MDR or biofilm-forming ExPECs and characterize ExPECs causing asymptomatic bacteriuria, community- (CA), or hospital-acquired (HA) UTIs in hospitalized patients in Brazil. Methods: Bacterial DNA was extracted from the urine of 63 hospitalized patients and sequenced using short-read sequencing. Antibiotic susceptibility was evaluated using VITEK-2, and the biofilm-forming, adhesion, and invasion abilities were quantitatively assessed. Results: Antibiotic resistance rates were high, and the majority of UTIs were complicated CA-UTIs. Most MDR- and ESBL-producing E. coli isolates belonged to high-risk lineages and were associated with UTIs in patients with comorbidities and over 60 years of age. The mortality rate of patients infected with MDR-isolates was higher than of those infected with non-MDR isolates. Most isolates were biofilm-forming, but no association with patients’ risk factors was found. Conclusions: Complicated UTIs caused by MDR- and biofilm-forming bacteria are frequently found in hospitalized patients in Brazil suffering from a UTI and are associated with high-risk lineages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0269.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: escherichia coli; dogs; virulence genes; antibiotic resistance; WGS; ST372; clonal structure
Online: 12 September 2020 (09:56:27 CEST)
Under one-health perspective and the worldwide antimicrobial resistance concern, we investigate extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), and multidrug resistant (MDR) E. coli from 197 isolates recovered from healthy dogs in Spain between 2013 and 2017. Ninety-one (46.2%) isolates were classified as ExPEC and/or UPEC including 50 clones, among which (i) four clones were dominant (B2-CH14-180-ST127, B2-CH52-14-ST141, B2-CH103-9-ST372 and F-CH4-58-ST64815) and (ii) 15 had been shown to be displayed by previously published isolates causing extraintestinal infections in humans. Twenty-eight (14.2%) isolates were classified as MDR, associated with B1, D and E phylogroups and included 24 clones, of which eight had also been identified among human isolates causing infections. We selected 23 ST372 strains, 21 healthy dogs faecal isolates and two human clinical isolates for whole genome sequencing and built a SNP-tree with these 23 genomes and 174 genomes (128 from canine strains and 46 from human strains) obtained from public databases. The analysis of these 197 genomes allowed to identify six clusters. Cluster 1 comprised 74.6% of the strain genomes that were mostly composed of canine strain genomes (P < 0.00001). Clusters 4 and 6 also included canine strain genomes, while clusters 2, 3 and 5 were significantly associated with human strain genomes. All these findings suggest that dogs are reservoirs of ExPEC, UPEC and MDR E. coli isolates with zoonotic potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1454.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Klebsiella pneumoniae, whole genome sequences (WGS), antimicrobial resistance (AMR), multidrug resistance (MDR), colistin resistance
Online: 23 October 2023 (13:26:48 CEST)
Multidrug resistance (MDR) among gram-negative bacteria is a global public health threat because it has exhausted all standard therapeutic options. This has necessitated clinicians to reconsider colistin, an “old sort” antibiotic which was deemed toxic for clinical use. Unfortunately, swift resistance towards colistin by K. pneumoniae has been reported in different parts of the world. The study aimed at investigating the genetic determinants of colistin resistance in K. pneumoniae isolated from patients admitted in a tertiary care hospital in Kampala, Uganda. 31 archived multidrug resistant K. pneumoniae isolates obtained from rectal swabs of patients admitted to the Mulago Hospital ICU were retrieved. From this collection, we selected 7 colistin resistant K. pneumoniae isolates for whole genome sequencing and molecular profile analysis. In silico sequence data analyses were performed using established web-based bioinformatics tools. The sequence analysis of the genes involved in colistin resistance revealed several non-synonymous mutations in nucleotide sequences of pmrA, pmrB, phoP, phoQ and mgrB genes. Insertion transposase genes for the insertion sequences IS1 and IS5 which are highly implicated in colistin resistance via modification or inactivation of mgrB gene were identified in all isolates and were located in the chromosomal DNA at different genomic positions. No plasmid-borne mcr genes were detected. More so, the strains harbored numerous multidrug resistant genes. This study underscores the need of genomic surveillance of K. pneumoniae strains to limit further spread of colistin resistance genes to avert the potential risk of pandrug resistance. And high throughput sequencing is imperative.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0266.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Collecting line current protection (CLPC); coordination protection; large-scale WGs trip-off; risk indicator
Online: 18 June 2018 (13:48:38 CEST)
There have been several cases of large-scale wind generators (WGs) tripping off caused by untimely fault removing in recent years. Currently, the discoordination between the box-type transformer fuse protection (BTFP) and two-section collecting line current protection (CLCP) brings a security risk to wind farm. In order to ensure the selectivity, the first section (Sec-I) CLCP should be set a enough interval that is longer than the fuse melting time, and another interval is set for the Sec-II CLCP, which weakens the speed of the CLCP. When a fault occurs on the collecting line, there is no doubt that WGs cannot work too long in abnormal operation, which may cause WGs to be placed off the grid. For a power system with high penetration of wind power, large-scale WGs tripping off will cause a great power shortage, and affect the stability of the power system. The selectivity and sensitivity of the CLCP is analyzed in detail to make the CLCP speed better. Considering the fault ride-through ability of WGs, the fault clear time is an important factor to lead to large-scale WGs tripping off. Two main works are done in this paper. The first is to accelerate the speed of the Sec-I CLCP though reducing the protection zone. Another one is introduce the risk assessment module into the CLCP, which not only improve the speed of the CLCP but also ensure the safety of the wind farm during faults. According to the deference in trip-off causes of WGs, the matching functions are created to assess the trip-off risk of WGs on the spot. In the case of fault, the trip-off risk indicators of WGs are timely updated to data sharing center and open to the CLCPs. The set of risk indicators is divided into several subsets according to the risk range. The dynamic changes of the subsets during fault help to improved CLCP scheme. This scheme can accelerate protection speed based on the increasing risk of large-scale WGs tripping off in wind farms. Compared with traditional CLCP, this approach can make the CLCP combines selectivity and speed better based on the analysis of the ride- through ability of WGs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0143.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: non-typhoidal Salmonella; ERIC-PCR typing; WGS; virulence-related genes; SPIs; Salmonella virulence plasmids; prophages
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:07:34 CEST)
In this work, we analysed human isolates of nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (NTS), which were collected from salmonellosis cases in Armenia from 1996 to 2019. This disease became a leading food-borne bacterial infection in the region, with the younger age groups especially affected. The isolates were characterised by serotyping, Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC-PCR) typing, and whole genome sequencing (WGS). The main serotypes were S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, and S. Arizonae. ERIC-PCR indicated a high degree of clonality among S. Typhimurium strains, which were also multidrug-resistant and produced extended spectrum beta-lactamases. During the study period, the frequency of S. Typhimurium and S. Arizonae isolations were decreasing, but with the increase of S. Enteritidis and other NTS. A total of 42 NTS isolates were subjected to WGS and explored for virulence-related traits and the corresponding genetic elements. Some virulence and genetic factors were shared by all NTS serotypes, while the main differences were attributed to the serotype-specific diversity of virulence genes, SPIs, virulence plasmids, and phages. The results indicated the variability and dynamics in the epidemiology of salmonellosis and a high virulence potential of human NTS isolates circulating in the region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0338.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: migratory birds; Newcastle disease virus-GVII; poultry; phylogenetics; sequence-independent; sin-gle-primer amplification (SISPA); velogenic; whole genome sequencing (WGS)
Online: 18 August 2022 (10:40:10 CEST)
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) genotype VII is a highly pathogenic Orthoavulavirus that has caused multiple outbreaks among poultry in Egypt since 2011. This study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity of NDV prevailing in domestic and wild birds in Egyptian governorates. A total of 37 oropharyngeal swabs from wild birds and 101 swabs from domestic bird flocks including chickens, ducks, turkeys, and swans were collected from different geographic regions within 13 governorates during 2019-2020. Virus isolation and propagation via embryonated eggs revealed 91 swab samples produced allantoic fluid containing hemagglutination activity, suggestive of virus presence. The use of RT-PCR targeted to F gene successfully detected NDV in 85 samples. The geographical prevalence of NDV spread to 12 governorates in domestic birds, migratory and non-migratory wild birds. Following whole genome sequencing, we assembled six NDV genome sequences (70 - 99% of genome coverage), including five full F gene sequences. All NDV strains carried high virulence, based on the presence of polybasic amino acids (RRQRF) at the F gene cleavage site. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the NDV strains belonged to class II within genotype VII.1.1. The presence of genetically similar virulent NDV in wild birds further highlights their role in the dissemination of NDV in poultry populations across Egypt. Continued genomic surveillance in both wild birds and poultry would be necessary for monitoring NDV incursions and genetic diversification.