ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0023.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: gelatin-oleic conjugate; self-assembled biodegradable nanoparticles; biomimetic shear stress; cell dynamic environment; cellular drug delivery; paclitaxel
Online: 4 April 2017 (10:59:02 CEST)
Fluid flow in human body is generally known to influence a variety of cellular behaviors. Different nanoparticle properties as well as cell type, interaction with other cells and cellular environments also show significant effect on nanoparticle uptake and drug efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of shear stress on cellular behaviors of biocompatible and biodegradable nanoparticles to cancer cells (A549 cell lines) in a biomimetic microfluidic system. We prepared a gelatin-oleic conjugate (GOC) as an amphiphilic biomaterial to prepare self-assembled gelatin-oleic nanoparticles (GON). Coumarin-6 and paclitaxel were used as the fluorescence marker and model drug, respectively, and were loaded into GONs by incubation (C-GONs; PTX-GONs). Additionally, we evaluated the cellular uptake of fluorescence labeled C-GONs and the drug efficacy of PTX-GONs. The cellular uptake of C-GONs by A549 cells in the absence of shear stress revealed that the mean fluorescence intensity was slightly decreased compared to that in the presence of shear stress. The results also indicated that negatively charged PTX-GONs had a lower cancer killing effect under dynamic conditions than that under static conditions. It also suggested that fluidic shear stress did not significantly affect drug uptake and efficiency in case of PTX-GONs. The cellular interactions between nanoparticles and cells in drug delivery should be carefully examined according to the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles such as the type of materials, size and mainly surface charge in a biomimetic microfluidic condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0075.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: Complete blood count; deep learning; segmentation; SegNet; Vgg-16
Online: 6 September 2019 (11:02:32 CEST)
Clinically, knowing the number of red blood cells (RBCs) and white blood cells (WBCs) helps doctors to make the better decision on accurate diagnosis of numerous diseases. The manual cell counting is a very time-consuming and expensive process, and it depends on the experience of specialists. Therefore, a completely automatic method supporting cell counting is a viable solution for clinical laboratories. This paper proposes a novel blood cell counting procedure to address this challenge. The proposed method adopts SegNet - a deep learning semantic segmentation to simultaneously segment RBCs and WBCs. The global accuracy of the segmentation of WBCs, RBCs, and the background of peripheral blood smear images obtains 89% when segment WBCs and RBCs from the background of blood smear images. Moreover, an effective solution to separate grouped or overlapping cells and cell count is presented using Euclidean distance transform, local maxima, and connected component labeling. The counting result of the proposed procedure achieves an accuracy of 93.3% for red blood cell count using dataset 1 and 97.38% for white blood cell count using dataset 2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0179.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: cognitive radio; cognitive vehicular networks; spectrum sensing; sensing/reporting channel; correlated rayleigh fading channel; hard fusion
Online: 25 December 2017 (10:42:53 CET)
An explosive growth in vehicular wireless services and applications gives rise to spectrum resource starvation. Cognitive radio has been used to vehicular networks to mitigate the impending spectrum starvation problem by allowing vehicles to fully exploit spectrum opportunities unoccupied by licensed users. Efficient and effective detection of licensed user is a critical issue to realize cognitive radio applications. However, spectrum sensing in vehicular environments is a very challenging task due to vehicles mobility. For instance, vehicle mobility has a large effect on the wireless channel, thereby impacting the detection performance of spectrum sensing. Thus, gargantuan efforts have been made in order to analyze the fading properties of mobile radio channel in vehicular environments. Indeed, numerous studies have demonstrated that the wireless channel in vehicular environments can be characterized by a temporally correlated Rayleigh fading. In this paper, we focus on energy detection for spectrum sensing and a counting rule for cooperative sensing based on Neyman-Pearson criteria. Further, we go into the effect of the sensing and reporting channels condition on spectrum sensing performance under temporally correlated Rayleigh sensing channel. For local and cooperative sensing, we derive some alternative expressions for average probability of miss detection. The pertinent numerical and simulating results are provided to further validate our theoretical analyses under a variety of scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0384.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Deep Learning; Smartphone Image; Acne Grading; Acne Object DetectionDeep Learning, Smartphone Image, Acne Grading, Acne Object Detection
Online: 28 June 2022 (10:05:25 CEST)
Skin image analysis using artificial intelligence (AI) has recently attracted significant research interest, particularly for analyzing skin images captured by mobile devices. Acne is one of the most common skin conditions with profound effects in severe cases. In this study, we developed an AI system called AcneDet for automatic acne object detection and acne severity grading using facial images captured by smartphones. AcneDet includes two models for conducting two tasks: (1) a Faster R-CNN-based deep learning model for the detection of acne lesion objects of four types including blackheads/whiteheads, papules/pustules, nodules/cysts, and acne scars; and (2) a LightGBM machine learning model for grading acne severity using the Investigator’s Global Assessment (IGA) scale. The output of the Faster R-CNN model, i.e., the counts of each acne type, were used as input for the LightGBM model for acne severity grading. A dataset consisting of 1,572 labeled facial images captured by both iOS and Android smartphones was used for training. The results show that the Faster R-CNN model achieves a mAP of 0.54 for acne object detection. The mean accuracy of acne severity grading by the LightGBM model is 0.85. With this study, we hope to contribute to the development of artificial intelligent systems that are able to help acne patients understand more about their conditions and support doctors in acne diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0471.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; cannula-associated arterial thrombosis; flow rate.
Online: 26 January 2023 (08:33:01 CET)
Introduction: Hemostatic dysfunction during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) due to blood-circuit interaction and the consequences of shear stress by flow rates lead to rapid activation of the coagulation cascade and thrombus formation in the ECMO system and blood vessels. In this study, we aimed to identify the incidence and risk factors for cannula-associated arterial thrombosis (CaAT) post-decannulation. Methods: A retrospective study of patients undergoing arterial cannula removal following ECMO. We evaluated the incidence of CaAT and compared clinical characteristics, pre-ECMO severity, and daily hemostasis parameters in patients with and without CaAT. Multivariate analysis revealed the risk factors for CaAT. Results: Forty-seven patients requiring venoarterial ECMO or hybrid methods were recruited to be screened for thrombosis. The median SOFA score was 11 (8-13). CaAT occurred in 29 patients (61.7%), with thrombosis in the superficial femoral artery accounting for 51.7%. Limb ischemia complications in the group with CaAT was 17.2%. In multivariate analysis, an ECMO flow rate of 100 mL/min was determined to be the independent factor for CaAT with an OR of 0.84 (95% CI, 0.73–0.95, p=0.008). Conclusion: In patients successfully weaned from ECMO, the incidence of CaAT was 61.7%. Our study found that a low-flow rate of ECMO was an independent risk factor for CaAT.