REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0050.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Neuroprosthetics; Brain Computer Interface; Neural Implants; Deep Brain Stimulation
Online: 3 February 2022 (11:06:15 CET)
Recent progress in microfabrication technique allowed the rapid development of neural implants. They are getting categorized as effective tools for clinical practice, especially to treat traumatic and neurodegenerative disorders. Microelectrode arrays already have been used in numerous neural interface devices. Basically, almost all neural implants have been developed based on BCI (Brain Computer Interface) system. When BCI system falls under invasive technique, it is referred as BMI or Brain Machine Interface. BMIs hold promises for neurorehabilitation of motor and sensory function, cognitive state evaluation and treatment of neurological chaos. A directed overview of the field of neural implants is discussed in this article. The aim of this review is to give a brief introduction of neural prosthetics as well as their exciting applications in treating neurological disorders and a deep discussion on their functionality are mentioned. BCI system and their different types, their functionality, their pros and cons, how other neural implants developed, and their present status have been covered. Different possibilities and possible future of deep brain stimulation (DBS), Neuralink, motor and sensory neural prosthetics are further discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0321.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Cancer cachexia, muscle atrophy, tissue regeneration, 3D bioprinting
Online: 14 July 2021 (11:20:17 CEST)
Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome that is identified by ongoing muscle atrophy, along with functional impairment, anorexia, weakness, fatigue, anemia, reduced tolerance to antitumor treatments. Thus, reducing the patients’ quality of life. Cachexia alone causes about 22-25% of cancer deaths. This review covers the symptoms, mediators, available treatment, and prospects of 3D bioprinting for cancer cachexia. Studies about cachexia have shown several factors that drive this disease – protein breakdown, inflammatory cytokines activation, and mitochondrial alteration. Even with proper nutrition, physical exercises, anti-inflammatory agents, chemotherapy, and grafting attempts, standard treatment has been unsuccessful for cachexia. But the use of 3D bioprinting shows much promise compared to conventional methods by attempting to fabricate 3D constructs mimicking the native muscle tissues. In this review, some 3D bioprinting techniques with their advantages and drawbacks, along with their achievements and challenges in in-vivo applications have been discussed. Constructs with neural integration or muscle-tendon units aim to repair muscle atrophy. But it is still difficult to properly bio-print these complex muscles. Although progress can be made by developing new bio-inks or 3D printers to fabricate high-resolution constructs. Using secondary data, this review study shows prospects of why 3D bioprinting can be a good alternate approach to fight cachexia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0620.v1
Online: 29 October 2020 (14:50:51 CET)
Bioprinting is a relatively new yet evolving technique predominantly used in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. 3D bioprinting techniques combine the advantages of creating Extracellular Matrix (ECM) like environments for cells and computer-aided tailoring of predetermined tissue shapes and structures. The essential application of bioprinting is for the regeneration or restoration of damaged and injured tissues by producing implantable tissues and organs. The capability of bioprinting is yet to be fully scrutinized in sectors like the patient-specific spatial distribution of cells, bio-robotics, etc. In this review, currently developed experimental systems and strategies for the bioprinting of different types of tissues as well as for drug delivery and cancer research are explored for potential applications. This review also digs into the most recent opportunities and future possibilities for the efficient implementation of bioprinting to restructure medical and technological practices.