REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0011.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: intercultural education; intervention programs; Roma student; systematic review; PRISMA
Online: 5 May 2019 (11:04:28 CEST)
Intercultural education can be seen as a cornerstone in the sustainability of the current culturally diverse society. In addition, through the establishment of policies and strategies to reverse situations of discrimination and exclusion, there is a consensus on the importance of the social inclusion of groups at risk of exclusion. In this context, actions are suggested to reverse high dropout rates and school failure within the Roma population. The aim of this systematic review in the educational context is to analyze investigations of programs and interventions that have been made to promote the educational inclusion of Roma students. Three databases are used, Scopus, Web of Science, and Eric, to examine 419 articles, which after a selection, based on an inclusion criterion which follows the guidelines given by the Declaration PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes), 17 articles were chosen for the analysis. The main findings shed light on data for programs and interventions developed mostly within the school setting and for students of elementary and secondary education. These programs provide answers for the molding of intercultural education and the policies for educational inclusion of Roma people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0084.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: extended newborn screening; ethnic screening differences; Roma ethnicity
Online: 14 April 2017 (08:31:47 CEST)
Authors present The First Results of the National Extended Newborn Screening (ENS) in Slovakia in the majority (M) and the Roma (R ) ethnic populations. The follow-up of the ethnicity has been introduced in Newborn Screening for Cystic Fibrosis (NSCF) and after to entire ENS program comprising of 23 Hereditary Metabolic Disorders (HMD). Results: In 2013-2015, a total of 165,648 newborns were investigated in ENS, 23,321 of them (15,3%) were the R ethnic group, a total of 313 positive cases were discovered (total ENS prevalence = 1:529, M=1:758, R=1:198). In the R ethnic group, there was slightly higher prevalence in cong. hypothyreosis (CH), only one case of CF, and no cases of CAH in the R ethnic group. The ENS prevalence of HMD detected by MS/MS was expressively higher in the R ethnic group than in M group (M=1:1670 vs. R=1:234, OR:7,13). Significant differences in the prevalence of individual types of HMD were found. Whereas the PKU and spectrum of aminoaciduria and organic acidurias dominate in the M group, the fatty acids oxidation disorders (MCAD, SCAD) and carnitine defects (CUD) were frequent in the R newborn group. Conclusion: Despite the presented results are preliminary, the ethnic approach to ENS is enabling the recording of the ethnic differences in the screening prevalence of individual disorders, which would be missing during unitary approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0022.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Roma; housing; eating habits; comparison; 18th century; 21st century; Slovakia
Online: 7 September 2017 (04:46:54 CEST)
Objectives: We compared housing and the eating habits of Roma. Contemporary findings (2013) were compared with those from the first monothematic work on Roma (1775) depicting their housing and eating habits. Methods: Data come from a journal (1775) and from semi-structured interviews (2013) with more than 70 Roma women and men who live segregated in excluded settlements at the edges of villages or scattered among the majority. Data were collected in two villages and one district town in the Tatra region, where data from the 1775 measurements originate. We used classical sociological theory and new ethnography to interpret the obtained data. Results: The main findings showed differences between specific social classes then and now regarding housing as well as eating habits, related to both conditions among Roma in the Tatra. The national Roma foods gója or marikľa are traditional foods of Slovak ancestors living in poverty in the country. The houses of Roma do not greatly differ from those of the majority. Conclusions: We conclude that life strategies of the citizens of poor settlements now are similar to two centuries ago, typical for the culture of poverty in various countries of the world even after the centuries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0428.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Roma minority, legal constrains, health care utilization, health status, geographical inequality
Online: 23 July 2018 (14:27:34 CEST)
Roma is the largest ethnic minority of Europe with poor health status, which is poorly explored due to legal constrains of ethnicity assessment. We aimed to elaborate health-indicators for adults living in segregated Roma settlements (SRS) representing the most vulnerable Roma subpopulation. SRSs were mapped in a study area populated by 54682 adults. Records of all adults living in the study area were processed in the National Institute of Health Insurance Fund Management. Aggregated, age-sex standardized SRS-specific and non-SRS-specific indicators on healthcare utilization and premature death along with the ratio of them (RR) were computed with 95% confidence intervals. The rate of GP appointments was significantly higher among SRS inhabitants (RR=1.152, 95%CI: 1.136–1.167). The proportion of subjects hospitalized (RR=1.286, 1.177–1.405), and the reimbursement for inpatient care (RR=1.060, 1.057–1.064) were elevated for SRS. Premature mortality was significantly higher in SRSs (RR=1.711, 1.085-2.696). Our study demonstrated that it is possible to compute the SRS-specific version of the routine healthcare indicators without violating the protection of personal data by converting a sensitive ethical issue to a non-sensitive small area geographical analysis; there is an SRS-specific healthcare utilization pattern, which is associated with elevated costs and increased risk of premature death.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: executive functioning; domain-specific cognitive stimulation; math; low-performing student; Roma ethnic group.
Online: 13 May 2021 (13:06:47 CEST)
The current study investigated whether a domain-specific intervention targeting maths and executive functions of primary school children with a Roma background would be effective in improving their scholastic performance and executive functioning. In total, 122 students attending Grade 4 of elementary school took part in the project. The study concerned a pretest-intervention-training experimental design with three conditions: the experimental condition, an active and a passive control group. The results suggested that both maths performance and executive functions improved over time, with no significant differences between the three conditions. An additional correlational analysis indicated that pretest performance was not related to posttest performance for the children in the experimental and active control group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0422.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: CRPNR; COVID-19 pandemic; hospital admission; GP visit; Hungary; interaction effect; Roma; specialist care
Online: 27 December 2021 (11:05:43 CET)
Background: Although, negative repercussions of inadequate health service use on the health outcomes has been presumably exacerbated by COVID-19, the impact of the pandemic measures has been not evaluated properly yet. Objective: Our study aimed to quantify the COVID-19 pandemic measures’ effect on the general practitioner (GP) visit, specialist care, hospitalization and cost-related prescription nonredemption (CRPNR) among adults in Hungary, and to identify the social strata susceptible to the pandemic effect. Methods: This community-based cross-sectional study based on nationally representative data of 6,611 (Nprepandemic=5,603 and Npandemic=1,008) subjects aged 18 years and above. Data were obtained from the European Health Interview Survey 2019 (EHIS) and International Social Survey Program 2021 (ISSP) for prepandemic and pandemic, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression models were applied to determine the sociodemographic and clinical factors influencing the health care use by odds ratios (OR) along with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). To identify the social strata susceptible to pandemic effect, the interaction of the time of data collection with level of education, marital status, and ethnicity, was also tested. Results: While, the CRPNR did not changed, the frequency of GP visit, specialist care and hospitalization rate were remarkably reduced by 22.2%, 26.4%, and 6.7%, respectively, during the pandemic in Hungary. Roma proved to be not specifically affected by the pandemic in any studied respect. The pandemic restructuring of health care impacted the social subgroups evenly with respect to hospital care. However, the pandemic effect was weaker among primary educated adults (ORhigh-school vs primary-education =0.434; 95% CI 0.243-0.776, ORhigh-school vs primary-education =0.598; 95% CI 0.364-0.985), and among widows (ORwidowed vs married =2.284; 95% CI 1.043-4.998, ORwidowed vs married=1.915; 95% CI 1.157-3.168) on the frequency of GP visit and specialist visit; and the prepandemic CRPNR inequality by level of education was increased (ORhigh-school vs primary-education =0.236; 95% CI 0.075-0.743). Conclusion: Primary educated and widowed did not follow the general trend, and their prepandemic limited health care use was not reduced further during pandemic, resulting in an inequality reduction. The vulnerability of primary educated to CRPNR was the only gap widened in the pandemic period. This shows that although the management of pandemic health care use restrictions was implemented by increasing the social inequality in Hungary, the prevention of inequity in drug availability for primary educated individuals could require more support.