ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0245.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy; OSAS; polysomnography
Online: 20 December 2018 (09:55:02 CET)
Background: The repeated episode of obstructive hypopnea and apnea during sleep is defined as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and it is a common condition in obese patients. Studies performing bariatric surgery have demonstrated a significant improvement in OSA by weight reduction. In this prospective study we aimed to explore the efficacy and safety of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy (LSG) on OSAS among severely obese patients. Material and Methods: A total of 32 morbidly obese patients who underwent LSG for morbid obesity were included in this study. Body weight, height, body mass index (BMI) and standard overnight polysomnography (PSG) were measured at before and after LSG at the 6th month. Results: 32 patients (27 female, 5 male) who have postoperative PSG's were included in this study. The mean age was 43.22±9.87 years old. The mean preoperative and postoperative BMIs were 50.36±8.14kg/m² and 37.27±7.93kg/m², respectively. The mean Epworth sleepiness scale determined as 5.84±4.65 preoperatively and 2.19±3.55 postoperatively. The preoperative and postoperative sleep efficiency test of the patients was determined as 83.34±9.68 and 88.94±6.90 respectively. AHI average at the preoperative PSG was 31.47±26.34, while 9.35±10:34 at postoperative 6 months and found as statistically significant. Conclusion: Our data showed that LSG is an efficient and safe procedure on severely obese patients and showed a predictive remission of clinical and sleep parameters of patients with OSA by analyzing PSG data during the first 6 months.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0123.v1
Online: 25 December 2016 (08:34:20 CET)
The supply chain has incorporated products by putting them into hair scarfs. This study introduces the use of mini chips in health and beauty products and can reduce fatigue through enhanced sleep patterns. The mini chip could be placed in the scarf and used as a prototype. RFID technology provides the supply chain with specific information that is used to identify products and make communication easier. (Muhammad, et. al. 2013) This paper presents a new tool herein referred to as a scarf prototype which is developed to analyse EMG (electromyogram), ECG (electrocardiography), EEG (electroencephalogram), and EOG (electro-oculogram) signals that focuses in the area of sleep disorders. The mini chips used can be used to determine a solution for sleep disruption by using automated analytics. This could lead to improvement in our understanding of sleep disruption and overall sleep physiology. Automated technology allows repeated measurements, evaluation of sleep patterns, and provide suggestions to improve a person’s quality of sleep. This analysis compares the use of polysomnography and the scarf prototype. The analytics provide models and shows correlation between variables, such as EMG, ECG, EEG, and EOG. This study shows that the results from the scarf prototype is just as reliable as the original method, polysomnography.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2172.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: cyclic alternating pattern; sleep texture; sleep apnea; polysomnography
Online: 31 May 2023 (05:32:49 CEST)
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is multi-faceted world-wide distributed disorder exerting deep effects on the sleeping brain. In the latest years strong efforts have been dedicated to find novel measures assessing the real impact and severity of the pathology, traditionally trivialized by the simplistic apnea/hypopnea index. Due to the unavoidable connection between OSA and sleep we reviewed the key aspects linking the breathing disorder with sleep pathophysiology, focuings on the role of cyclic alternating pattern (CAP). Sleep structure, reflecting the degree of apnea-induced sleep instability, may provide topical informations to stratify OSA severity and foresee some of its dangerous consequences such as excessive daytime sleepiness and cognitive deterioration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1534.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: IR-UWB radar; polysomnography; spectrograms; respiratory rate; heartbeat rate
Online: 25 June 2023 (08:33:47 CEST)
The last decade the impulse-radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) radar sensors have tended to substitute the gold standard, polysomnography (PSG), for the acquisition of the primary vital signs of the human body. However, the main drawback of the radar sensor is its sensitivity to the environmental noise and body motion. In this work, we aim to investigate whether radar sensor recordings of the chest and heart motion can be accurate substitutes to the PSG chest and heartbeat signals measurements. In terms of this scientific issue, we develop an innovative pipeline of handling the radar-based recordings, which includes: (a) the motion detection, (b) the extraction of the respiration, heartbeat and activity vital signs and (c) the estimation of the respiratory and heartbeat rates, i.e., the RR and HR, respectively. Our experimental results, applying our proposed methodology to 5 subjects during their sleep, showed that the radar sensor’s measurements can be comparative to the those producted by the PSG. Moreover, the corresponding RR and HR frequencies were proven to have Pearson’s correlation, between the radar and the PSG, greater than 0.9 and 0.78, respectively. Finally, the relative errors between the PSG, and the radar-based RR and HR rates were proven to be less than 6% and 10%, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0141.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: bruxism; electromyography; sleep apnea; polysomnography; sleep bruxism; sleep wake disorders
Online: 14 November 2023 (07:55:30 CET)
Background: The gold standard for the diagnosis of sleep bruxism (SB) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is Polysmnography (PSG). At the end of the apnea episodes there is frequently a final hy-permotor muscle activity that could act as a confusion factor in the diagnosis of SB with the elec-tromyography portable devices. The aim of this study was to compare the concordance on the number of episodes of SB in a population with OSA, between the diagnosis obtained by PSG, an-alyzed manually by a neurophysiologist and that obtained manually and automatically by a portable electromyography (EMG) and electrocardiography (EKG) device. Methods: Twenty-three subjects underwent one night of polysomnographic study with simulta-neous recording with the EMG-EKG device. The variables referring to the number of episodes and the SB index measured with both tools and analyzed in the manual and automatic modes were compared. Masticatory muscle activity was scored according to published criteria. The sample was segmented by severity of OSA according to AASM criteria. ANOVA, correlations, and the Bland–Altman plot were used to quantify the agreement between both methods. The concordance was calculated through the ICC. Results: The total events of SB per night in the PSG study were on average (8.17), lower than the one obtained with EMG-EKG manual analysis (14.13) and automatic (29.26). Both the SB PSG and Manual EMG-EKG episodes decrease from non-OSA (PSG = 16 ± 13,55, EMG-EKG = 16,83 ±11,58) to severe OSA (PSG = 3,14 ± 4,26, EMG-EKG = 9,86 ± 8,09). However, in the case of automatic EMG-EKG mode: the number of SB episodes in severe OSA doubled (41,23 ± 12,50) with respect to non OSA (24,50 ± 12,19). On average: the EMG-EKG device Automatic analysis measures 21.08 units more than PSG. The results with the manual EMG-EKG analysis improved. Conclusion: There is no concordance between the results obtained in the PSG neurophysiologic analysis and those obtained by means of the EMG-EKG device automatic and manual analysis for the diagnosis of SB in a population mostly with OSA. The OSA could act as a confusion factor in the diagnosis of SB with the electromyography portable devices, but further study is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0303.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: wrist-worn devices; sleep trackers; activity trackers; sleep classification; polysomnography
Online: 26 July 2019 (17:13:36 CEST)
Commercial sleep devices and mobile-phone applications for scoring sleep are gaining ground. In order to provide reliable information about the quantity and/or quality of sleep, their performance needs to be assessed against the current gold-standard, i.e. polysomnography (PSG; measuring brain, eye and muscle activity). We here assessed some commercially available sleep trackers, namely; a commercial activity tracker: Mi band (Xiaomi, BJ, CHN), a scientific actigraph: Motionwatch 8 (CamNTech, CB, UK), and a much used sleep application: Sleep Cycle (Northcube, GOT, SE). We recorded 27 nights in healthy sleepers using PSG and these devices. Surprisingly, all devices had very poor agreement with the gold standard. Sleep parameter comparisons revealed that specifically the Mi band and the sleep cycle application had difficulties in detecting wake periods which negatively affected the total sleep time and sleep efficiency estimations. However, all 3 devices were good in detecting the most basic parameter, the actual time in bed. In summary, our results suggest that, to-date; available sleep trackers do not provide meaningful sleep analysis but may be interesting for simply tracking times in bed. A much closer interaction with the scientific field seems necessary if reliable information shall be derived from such devices in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0169.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: thermopile sensor; actimetry; thermal camera, data classification; tele-medicine; polysomnography;
Online: 26 April 2017 (12:27:38 CEST)
This paper address the development of a new technic in the sleep analysis domain. Sleep is defined as a periodic physiological state during which vigilance is suspended and reactivity to external stimulations diminished. We sleep on average between six and nine hours per night and our sleep is composed of four to six cycles of about 90-minutes each. Each of these cycles is composed of a succession of several stages of sleep, more or less deep. The analysis of sleep is usually done using a polysomnography. This examination consists of recording, among other things, electrical cerebral activity by electroencephalography (EEG), ocular movements by electrooculography (EOG) and chin muscle tone by electromyography (EMG). The recording is done mostly in a hospital, more specifically in a service for monitoring the pathologies related to sleep. The readings are then interpreted manually by an expert to generate a hypnogram, a curve showing the succession of sleep stages during the night in 30-second epochs. The proposed method is based on the follow-up of the thermal signature that makes it possible to classify the activity into three classes: "awakening", "calm sleep" and "agitated sleep". The contribution of this non-invasive method is part of the screening of sleep disorders, to be validated by a more complete analysis of the sleep. The measure provided by this new system, based on temperature monitoring (patient and ambient), aims to be integrated into the tele-medicine platform developed within the framework of the Smart-EEG project by the SYEL - SYstèmes ELectroniques team. Analysis of the data collected during the first surveys carried out with this method showed a correlation between thermal signature and activity during sleep. The advantage of this method lies in its simplicity and the possibility of carrying out measurements of activity during sleep and without direct contact with the patient at home or hospitals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0354.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: sleep apnoea; obstructive sleep apnoea; polysomnography; excessive day time sleepiness; obesity
Online: 16 September 2020 (07:19:33 CEST)
Objective: Identify factors associated with excessive day time sleepiness (EDS) in individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and analyze the effects that obesity and gender have on excessive daytime sleepiness in such individuals. Methods: A total of 160 people were selected for this study. All the people have completed a clinical evaluation, and whose apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 10 events/hour of sleep on polysomnography were included in the study from the Department of otolaryngology. Results: The Mean age was 43.87±11.34 years, mean EDS score was 14.09± 4.91, and mean AHI was 43.88±20.66 events/hour of sleep. Male presented lower mean age, higher EDS scores, and more time in apnoea, whereas females presented with higher mean age, lower EDS scores, and less time in sleep apnea. The EDS score showed best correlation with duration of apnoea (r = 0.448; p < 0.01), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2; r = -0.458; p < 0.01) and AHI (r = 0.484; p < 0.01). The mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.41±3.86 kg/m2. Normal, Overweight, obese, and morbidly obese were observed in 20%, 61%, 18%, and 0.6% of cases, respectively. Severity of the disease best correlated with BMI (r = 0.421; p < 0.01). Conclusions: OSA is predominant in males (M/F 5:1), and obese population. Females diagnosed with OSA have higher mean age. However, EDS scores and time spent in sleep apnoea is lower in females. Higher BMI is associated with EDS, irrespective of gender.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0327.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Obstructive sleep apnea; Metabolomics; Triglycerides; Phosphocholines; Ceramides; Apnea Hypopnea Index; Polysomnography; Lipid metabolism; Multilevel Sleep Surgery
Online: 15 July 2020 (09:19:05 CEST)
Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is caused by partial or complete obstruction of the upper airways. Corrective surgeries aim at removing obstructions in the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and hypopharynx. OSA is associated with increased risk of various metabolic diseases. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of surgery on the plasma metabolome. Methods: This study included 39 OSA patients who underwent Multilevel Sleep Surgery (MLS). Clinical and anthropometric measures were taken at baseline and 5 months after surgery. Results: The mean Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) significantly dropped from 22.0 ± 18.5 events/hour to 8.97 ± 9.57 events/hour (p-Value <0.001). The Epworth’s sleepiness Score (ESS) dropped from 12.8 ± 6.23 to 2.95 ± 2.40 (p-Value <0.001) indicating success of the surgery in treating OSA. Plasma levels of metabolites, phosphocholines (PC) PC.41.5, PC.42.3, ceremide (Cer) Cer.44.0, and triglyceride (TG) TG.53.6, TG.55.6 and TG.56.8 were decreased (p-Value<0.05) whereas lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC) 20.0 and PC.39.3 were increased (p-Value<0.05) after surgery. Conclusion: This study highlights the success of MLS in treating OSA. Treatment of OSA resulted in improvement in metabolic status that was characterized by decreased TG, PCs and Cer metabolites post-surgery indicating that the success of the surgery positively impacted the metabolic status of these patients.