ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0265.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: mental health; migrant health; undocumented migrants; COVID-19; coping strategy; Myanmar; Thailand; mixed method
Online: 19 September 2022 (05:40:23 CEST)
Migrant population have always been vulnerable for high burden of social exclusion, mental disorders, physical illness and economic crisis. The current COVID-19 pandemic has further created the frantic plight among them, particularly for the undocumented migrant workers in global south. We have conducted a mixed method study among the undocumented Myanmar migrant workers (UMMWs) in Thailand to explore how the COVID-19 disruption has impacted on their mental health and what are the coping strategies adopted by them. Following the onset of COVID-19 and the recent coup d'etat in Myanmar, our current study is the first attempt to understand the mental health status and predicament of this neglected migrant group. A total of 398 UMMWs were included in the online survey among whom 23 participated in qualitative interviews. The major mental health issues reported by the study participants were depression, generalised anxiety disorder, frustration, stress and panic disorder while loss of employment, worries about the pandemic, social stigma, refused access to healthcare, lockdown and fear of detention were the predominant contributing factors. In response, we identified two key coping mechanisms- coping at personal layer (listening to music, playing online game, praying, self-motivation) and social layer (chatting with family and friends, visiting religious institutions). These findings point to the importance of policy and intervention programs aimed to uphold mental health at such humanitarian conditions. Sustainable institutional mental health care support and social integration for the migrant workers irrespective of their legal status should be ensured.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0402.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; One Health; poultry; poultry farmers; antibiotic use; Pakistan
Online: 26 July 2022 (10:33:42 CEST)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) due to community carriage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is highly prevalent in the WHO South-East Asia region. One of the major reasons is the misuse of antibiotics in animal farming practices and at community level, which threatens both human and animal health. However, this multifaceted One Health (OH) problem of antibiotic use (ABU) in poultry farms and respective farmers is not well studied in countries like Pakistan. Therefore, we conducted n OH cross-sectional study in rural Punjab to explore the current practices of ABU in poultry and poultry farmers, associated factors, their healthcare-seeking behaviour and biosecurity practices. We found all the participating farmers using antibiotics for poultry, 60% of which were Colistin sulphate and Amoxicillin trihydrate. The significant consumption of antibiotics in poultry farms (60%) and poultry farmers (50%) was without prescription. Most of the farms (85%) had no wastewater drainage system, causing direct shedding of poultry waste and antibiotic residue in the surrounding environment. Lack of farmers’ education, professional farm training and duration of farming experience were the significantly associated factors with ABU and knowledge of AMR. Our study implies the necessity of an integrated OH-AMR policy with the inclusion of farmers’ education, mass awareness, and strict antibiotic usage guidelines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0122.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Hepatoprotective; ascorbic acid; α-tocopherol; paracetamol; ALT; MDA; Histology
Online: 9 June 2020 (11:40:38 CEST)
Background and objectives: The hepatoprotective activity of vitamin E and C is evident due to their ability of modulating the antioxidant pathway. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid on paracetamol induced liver damage with offsetting various levels of drug treatment following an in vivo experimental protocol on Wistar albino male rats. Materials and Methods: The level of lipid peroxidation as well as histological examination of liver tissues were observed among 50 Wistar albino male rats to evaluate hepatoprotective effect of α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid on hepatocytes. The experiment was divided into 5 groups (10 rats in each group)- Basal control group (Group-I, with propylene glycol), Paracetamol treated control group (Group –II), α-tocopherol pretreated & paracetamol treated group (Group –III), Ascorbic acid pretreated & paracetamol treated group (Group –IV) and Ascorbic acid pretreated & paracetamol treated group (Group –IV). Results: The mean (± SD) Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were significantly reduced in α-tocopherol pretreated and paracetamol treated group (P<0.001), Ascorbic acid pretreated and paracetamol treated group (P≤0.05) and combined α-tocopherol with ascorbic acid pretreated & paracetamol treated group (P<0.001). Statistically significant differences in histological findings of rat liver were observed in paracetamol treated control group (P<0.001), ascorbic acid pretreated and paracetamol treated group (P<0.001). The serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level was also significantly higher in paracetamol treated group (P<0.001), α-tocopherol pretreated plus paracetamol treated group (P≤0.05) and in ascorbic acid pretreated plus paracetamol treated group (P<0.001). Conclusion: The combined pretreatment of α-tocopherol & ascorbic acid have better hepatoprotective effects than α-tocopherol or ascorbic acid alone against paracetamol induced liver damage. The decrement of free radicals produced by vitamin E could be a better hepatoprotective antioxidant than vitamin C in paracetamol induced toxicity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0279.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: global health; planetary health education; climate change; healthcare professionals; curriculum development; sustainable healthcare education; mini review
Online: 16 August 2022 (05:36:28 CEST)
The emerging concept of planetary health needs to be discussed in a more organized and sustainable way within the global public health and healthcare disciplines. Therefore, planetary health should be considered a cardinal component of the global academic framework for healthcare professionals. The availability of related curricula and courses is crucial to equip health professionals in this relatively new discipline of planetary health. In this review article, we aimed to explore published articles and online databases of courses to summarize the available planetary health education opportunities and discussions for health professionals, to identify the gaps in resource allocation and to suggest future recommendations. We observed a visible re-source inequity in global south with the lack of a universal planetary health module for healthcare professionals. Additionally, there is minimal inclusion of allied health disciplines in this learning process. We, therefore, recommend a dedicated network of motivated healthcare professionals and regional hubs with an agenda to ensure a comprehensive, uniform, and inclusive planetary health education curriculum and practice.