REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0300.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: poxviruses; Variola; smallpox; Monkeypox; Vaccinia; Orf; Molluscum; Tanapox
Online: 20 July 2022 (10:05:05 CEST)
Poxviridae have been successful pathogens throughout recorded history, infecting humans among a variety of other hosts. Although eradication of the notorious smallpox has been a globally successful healthcare phenomenon, the recent emergence of Monkeypox virus, also belonging to the Orthopoxvirus genus and causing human disease, albeit milder than smallpox, is a cause of significant public health concern. The ongoing outbreak of monkeypox, demonstrating human-human transmission, in previously non-endemic countries, calls for critical need into further research in the areas of viral biology, ecology and epidemiology to better understand, prevent and treat human infections. In the wake of these recent events, it becomes important to revisit poxviral infections, their pathogenesis and ability to cause infection across multiple non-human hosts and leap to a human host. The poxviruses that cause human diseases include Monkeypox virus, Molluscum contagiosum virus and Orf virus. In this review we summarize the current understanding of various poxviruses causing human diseases, provide insights into their replication and pathogenicity, disease progression and symptoms, preventive and treatment options and their importance in shaping modern medicine through application in gene therapy, oncolytic viral therapies for human cancers or as poxvirus vectors for vaccines.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0218.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Public Health Emergency; Sexual Health; Monkeypox; Smallpox; JYNNEOS; ACAM2000; Tecovirimat; Brincidofovir
Online: 11 August 2022 (11:46:12 CEST)
Monkeypox, once a rare zoonotic disease, was endemic to some African countries since its original identification among humans in 1970. Since then, cases in non endemic regions were linked to returning travelers or those who had contact with transported animals. The causative agent, Monkeypox virus, belongs to Orthopoxviruses, the same family as Variola; the causative organism for smallpox. Although most Monkeypox outbreaks until recently were linked to zoonotic transmission, secondary human-human transmission in smallpox unvaccinated individuals was observed in a small proportion of overall cases. Smallpox was declared eradicated in 1980 and since its eradication, monkeypox virus is the most significant poxvirus to cause human disease. The 2022 monkeypox outbreak marks a significant paradigm shift in the human and poxvirus association, with new modes of transmission, concerns of viral evolution and entrenchment as a sexually transmitted disease. Monkeypox clinically resembles smallpox but is far milder. At this time there are no approved therapies for monkeypox and antiviral agents effective against smallpox are being utilized. Additionally, preventive strategies being utilized include smallpox vaccination like JYNNEOS and ACAM2000. In this narrative review, we discuss the virology, epidemiology, transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, management and prevention strategies associated with monkeypox.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0097.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Bivalent COVID-19 vaccine; COVID-19 vaccination booster; COVID-19; Omicron; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 6 March 2023 (07:00:00 CET)
The severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant of concern has been the dominant cause of worldwide COVID-19 cases since 2022. All the Omicron sublineage viruses have demonstrated high transmissibility and an ability to escape vaccine-induced immunity. While first-generation vaccines, including monovalent vaccines, continue to provide protection against severe disease, hospitalization and mortality, their efficacy against Omicron sub variants remains sparse. These vaccines have also been associated with rapidly waning protection against primary COVID-19 and COVID-19 reinfections conferred by evolving Omicron sublineages.. This led to the development and deployment of updated vaccines and the introduction of the bivalent booster. Through this review, we highlight the brief journey of the variants of concern leading to the dominance of Omicron and the effectiveness of the key vaccines against these variants, including the updated (bivalent) boosters.