HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0614.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: smart cities; artificial intelligence; internet of things; air pollution
Online: 22 April 2021 (14:18:12 CEST)
Air pollution contributes to a critical environmental problem in various towns and cities. With the emergence of the smart cities concept, appropriate methods to curb associated with exposure to pollutants must have been a portion of appropriate urban development policy. This study presents a technologically driven air quality solution in smart cities to advertise energy-efficient and cleaner sequestration in these areas. It aims to address the issue of how to integrate the data-based strategies and artificial intelligence into efficient public sector pollution management in smart cities as a core part of the smart city definition. Exploratory research has been used in 152 smart cities, and environmental experts contributed to this study. It further addresses the technical criteria for implementing such a framework that the public administration uses to prepare the renovation of public buildings, minimize energy use and costs, and link these smart police stations to monitor air pollution as a part of integrated cities. Such a digital transition in resource management will increase public governance's energy performance, a higher standard of operation, and a healthier environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0117.v1
Online: 9 June 2020 (05:00:26 CEST)
Speckle noise is one of the most difficult noises to remove especially in medical applications. It is a nuisance in ultrasound imaging systems which is used in about half of all medical screening systems. Thus, noise removal is an important step in these systems, thereby creating reliable, automated, and potentially low cost systems. Herein, a generalized approach MFNR (Multi-Frame Noise Removal) is used, which is a complete Noise Removal system using KDE (Kernal Density Estimation). Any given type of noise can be removed if its probability density function (PDF) is known. Herein, we extracted the PDF parameters using KDE. Noise removal and detail preservation are not contrary to each other as the case in single-frame noise removal methods. Our results showed practically complete noise removal using MFNR algorithm compared to standard noise removal tools. The Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) performance was used as a comparison metric. This paper is an extension to our previous paper where MFNR Algorithm was showed as a general purpose complete noise removal tool for all types of noises
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0091.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: Breast Cancer Screening; Digital Image Elasto Tomography (DIET); Image Noise Removal, Image Enhancement; Multiple Frame Noise Removal (MFNR)
Online: 7 June 2020 (14:53:34 CEST)
Breast cancer is a leading cause of death among women. Conventional screening methods, such as mammography, and ultrasound diagnosis are expensive and have significant limitations. Digital Image Elasto Tomography (DIET) is a new noninvasive breast cancer screening system that has a potential to be a low cost and reliable breast cancer screening tool. It is based on modal analysis of the breast mass, and stereographic 3D image analysis to detect the stiffer abnormal tissues. However, camera sensor noise, especially Gaussian noise is a major source of Optical Flow (OF) error in this approach to tumor detection. This work studies the performance of different conventional filters, including the standard Gaussian filter tool to remove this noise and produce more robust screening results. A radical approach, Multiple Frame Noise Removal (MFNR) is proposed, for use in this type of medical image processing instead of a Gaussian filter or other typical image noise removal tools. Its a multiple frame noise removal method where Probability Density Function (PDF) of noise is extracted from the multiple images by characterizing the same pixel positions in multiple images. The noise becomes deterministic, and hence easily removed. The proposed algorithm was applied to a data set from 10 phantom breast tests with a prototype DIET system, and 10 in-vivo samples from healthy women. Comparisons were made to an optimal Gaussian filter form that is commonly used. Reductions in OF error using these digitally imaged data sets was used to compare performance. Refinement of the images for medical applications requires higher PSNR, which was successfully achieved by using MFNR algorithm. In this study, the algorithm was used to improve the imaging results of a DIET system. The conventional wisdom that states that noise removal and detail preservation are contrasting effects is
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0090.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: Noise Removal; Image Enhancement; MFNR; multi-dimensional data
Online: 7 June 2020 (14:51:03 CEST)
In research applications across several areas, noise removal is indispensable for accuracy of final results. Noise is caused due to physical principals, such as background electronic noise, quantum effect, and wave rebound effect to name a few. Noise removal can help improve results in medical, astronomy, defense, and numerous other fields. Addressing this limitation would result in potentially low cost, automatic, and reliable systems. In this paper, a generalized new approach i.e. Multi-Frame Noise Removal (MFNR) is proposed for noise removal. Given any type of data, the probability density function (PDF) of the noise can be determined. Herein, we extracted the noise PDF parameters using KDE (Kernel Density Estimation). Because the data is corrupted by “deterministic” noise, hence can be cleaned. This could be used as a general purpose noise removal tool. The data point with same position in multiple frames helps us determine the noise PDF characteristics and hence making it possible to remove noise. The conventional wisdom which states that noise removal and detail preservation are contrary to each other is not true for MFNR. Experimental results validate our proposed method which showed practically complete noise reduction based on number of frames used, as compared to existing benchmark methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0219.v1
Subject: Keywords: tetrasubsituted imidazoles; synthesis; cyclocondensation reaction; characterization; antibacterial activity; compound K2
Online: 17 June 2020 (13:18:37 CEST)
A new class of tetrasubstituted imidazole based compounds was synthesized using a multicomponent one-pot synthesis scheme through a cyclo condensation reaction of benzil, aromatic primary amines, aldehydes and ammonium acetate in glacial acetic acid. The synthesized compounds have been analyzed and characterized by melting point, color, conductivity method, CHN analysis, FT-IR, and UV-Visible. The reaction proceeding was examined by TLC after regular intervals of period. To test biological activity, the synthesized compounds have been examined against various bacterial strains. From the analysis of the antibacterial activity of these synthesized compounds demonstrated that all three imidazole compounds have considerable to significant activity against the strains, and compound K2 was found potent comparatively.