ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0114.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: stability criterion; bipedal excitation; excessive vibration; dynamic performances.
Online: 15 May 2017 (17:58:14 CEST)
The excessive vibration caused by crowds walking across footbridges has attracted great public concerns in the past few decades. This paper presents, from considering the dynamic characteristics of the bipedal crowd model, a new stability limit criterion based on the bipedal excitation model. The stability limit can be used to estimate the upper boundary of crowd size. In addition, the dynamic stable performances of a structure, under a certain walking crowd size, can be predicted by the stability criterion. This proposed mechanism provides an alternative comprehension how crowd excite the excessive sway motion with a large-span structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0471.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: aquaporin; pollen hydration; stigma; PIP2; 5; arabidopsis
Online: 25 July 2018 (06:24:50 CEST)
In flowering plants with dry stigmas, pollen hydration involves water movement, which may be facilitated by aquaporins. To explore the possibility underlying this biological process, we identified and characterized a mutant with a T-DNA insertion in PIP2;5, which encodes an aquaporin with water channel activity in the PIP2 subfamily. We monitored the pollination process (pollen hydration, germination, and pollen tube growth) of wild type pollen on stigmas of the mutant and wild type. Pollen hydration was postponed on the stigmas of the mutant, compared with that on wild type stigmas. However, pollen tube germination and growth was unaffected in the mutant. The PIP2;5 protein was located in the cell plasma membrane and was preferentially expressed in the stigma. Based on our results, we concluded that PIP2;5 might play an important role in water movement during pollen hydration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0302.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Verticillium wilt; cotton; transmembrane protein; resistance; plant immunity
Online: 17 August 2022 (05:28:04 CEST)
Verticillium wilt (VW) is a soil borne fungal diseases caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb, and lead to serious damage to cotton production annually in the world. In our previous study, a transmembrane protein 214 protein (TMEM214) gene associated with VW resistance was map-based cloned from Gossypium barbadense (G. barbadense). TMEM214 proteins are a kind of transmembrane protein, but their function in plants is rarely studied. To reveal the function of TMEM214s in VW resistance, all six TMEM214s were cloned from G. barbadense in this study. These genes were named as GbTMEM214-1, GbTMEM214-4 and GbTMEM214-7 according to their location on the chromosomes, and the encoded proteins are all located on cell membrane. TMEM214 genes were all induced by Verticillium dahliae inoculation and showed significant differences between resistant and susceptible varieties, but the expression patterns of GbTMEM214s under different hormone treatments were significantly different. Virus-induced gene silencing analysis showed the resistance to VW of GbTMEM214s-silenced lines decreased significantly, which further proves the important role of GbTMEM214s in the resistance to Verticillium dahliae. Our study provides an insight into the involvement of GbTMEM214s in VW resistance, which was helpful to better understand the disease resistance mechanism of plants.