ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1463.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: Late Permian coal; trace element geochemistry; coal facies; depositional environment; Xuanwei Formation
Online: 22 August 2023 (04:47:31 CEST)
Paleopeat-forming environments have an important effect on the dispersion and enrichment of trace elements in coal. The C3 coal seam of the Xuanwei Formation in eastern Yunnan was used as a case study to reconstruct the paleopeat-forming environment based on the coal facies parameters and geochemical characteristics, and its influence on trace element (including rare earth elements and yttrium, REY) enrichment was investigated. The C3 coal was classified as medium rank coking coal with an ultra-low moisture content, medium-high-ash yield, and low-medium volatile content. Compared to the average values for Chinese coals, Cu and V were enriched and Co was slightly enriched in the C3 coal. Compared with the average values for world coals, Cu and V were enriched, while several other trace elements were slightly enriched, including Co, Hf, Nb, Sc, Ta, Zn, and Zr in the C3 coal. The C3 coal was deposited in a low peat mainly limno-telmatic swamp, with deep water, weak hydrodynamic conditions, brackish to salty water, and reducing conditions. Trace elements, including Cu, V, Hf, Nb, Sc, Ta, Zr, and REY, are typically enriched in a limno-telmatic environment with fresh water, and reducing and weak hydrodynamic conditions. Additionally, REY and V are also significantly enriched in brackish water limno-telmatic conditions with the same depositional environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0493.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Autotetraploid; Potato; RNA-Seq; WGCNA analysis; Hub genes
Online: 18 April 2023 (05:25:28 CEST)
The formation and development of potato tissues and organs is a complex process regulated by a variety of genes and environmental factors. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying the growth and development are still unclear. In this study, we used autotetraploid potato JC14 as experimental subject to analyze the transcriptome of root, stem and leaf at seedling, tuber formation and tuber expansion stages to explore the spatio-temporal expression pattern of genes and genetic development characteristics. The results identified thousands of differentially expressed genes and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that these genes were mainly involved in defense response and carbohydrate metabolism pathways. A total of 12 co-expressed Gene modules were identified by Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA), and 4 modules were screened out with the highest correlation with potato stem developmental traits. Core genes in the network were further investigated and functionally annotated by computing the connectivity of genes within the module. The results unveiled number of hub genes in stems at different developmental stages, including carbohydrate metabolism related genes, the defense response related genes, and transcription factors. These findings provide important leads for further understanding of the molecular regulation and genetic mechanisms of potato tissue development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1435.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder; microbiota; meta-analysis
Online: 19 May 2023 (10:54:34 CEST)
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with high heterogeneity and has a prevalence of 0.7% to 3.2% in children. Gut microbiota are a collection of microorganisms that inhabit in human guts, which can produce various metabolites that affect the homeostasis and functions of nervous and endocrine systems. There are many studies on the relationship between various gut microbiota and ASD, but the alteration pattern of microbial profiles in ASD children is not conclusive. In order to more robustly describe the deregulations of gut microbiota compositions in ASD, a meta-analysis was performed. The related investigations from PubMed, Embase and Web of Science were collected and manually reviewed. By procedure, 26 eligible studies until 2023, with a total of 1021 ASD and 951 typically developed children and adolescents, were included for the meta-analysis. RevMan5.4 was used to assess the overall effect of 8 microbes at the phylum level and 19 microbes at the genus level. Results demonstrated relatively up-regulated abundance of Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Bacteroides, Clostridium, Dorea and Sutterella, and down-regulated abundance of Proteobacteria, Bifidobacterium, Coprococcus, and Akkermansia in ASD children, indicating partly agreement in the ASD-associated microbes, albeit the heterogeneity of ASD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0114.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: stability criterion; bipedal excitation; excessive vibration; dynamic performances.
Online: 15 May 2017 (17:58:14 CEST)
The excessive vibration caused by crowds walking across footbridges has attracted great public concerns in the past few decades. This paper presents, from considering the dynamic characteristics of the bipedal crowd model, a new stability limit criterion based on the bipedal excitation model. The stability limit can be used to estimate the upper boundary of crowd size. In addition, the dynamic stable performances of a structure, under a certain walking crowd size, can be predicted by the stability criterion. This proposed mechanism provides an alternative comprehension how crowd excite the excessive sway motion with a large-span structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1832.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Pingdingshan No. 10 coal mine; Coalbed gas reservoir; pore-fracture characteristics; adsorption characteristics; gas-bearing properties
Online: 30 October 2023 (07:17:11 CET)
The physical properties of coal reservoirs are the main restrictions to exploration and development of CBM. The study of the physical characteristics of coal reservoirs and their controlling factors is of great significance to the safe and efficient development and utilization of CBM resources in the mining area. The Pingdingshan No. 10 coal mine was chosen for this study because of its better gas production effect at the test wells. The reservoir properties of the main coal seams of the No. 10 coal mine were tested and analyzed to comprehensively evaluate the reservoir properties. The results indicate that (1) The gas content and methane purity of the No. 4 coal seam are significantly higher than the No. 2 seam, and therefore they have better development potential than the No. 2 seam; (2) The average adsorption time of the No. 2 coal seam is less than that of the No. 4 seam, making it easier to reach the peak production capacity of CBM wells in the short term, but is not conducive to long-term stable production of CBM. The Langmuir volume of the No. 2 coal seam samples was significantly greater than for the No. 4 coal seam; however, the No. 4 coal seam contains about three times the amount of gas in the No. 2 seam; (3) All three coal seams have high porosity, which is favorable for large amounts of CBM adsorption and storage. Micropores predominate, transitional pores are less frequent, and a few mesopores occur; macropores are the least common. Samples from the No. 4 seam contained the highest proportion of micropores; (4) Organic pores were common in the all coal samples, with pore diameters not more than 30 µm, mainly concentrated between 50.5 and 1000 nm. Microfractures with aperture less than 70 nm were relatively frequent, mainly in the 50–65 nm range. A large number of the nanoscale microfractures were curved or jagged; (5) Fractures in the No. 2 and No. 4 coal seam samples with widths of 50 nm to 20 µm were more developed, and many were filled with kaolinite, quartz and other minerals; (6) The samples contained mostly layered silicate minerals (kaolinite), with hard granular minerals (quartz) next, and a very small quantity of iron-type minerals such as siderite and pyrite in dendritic form. The results of this study can provide a reference basis for the large-scale development and utilization of subsequent CBM wells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0471.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: aquaporin; pollen hydration; stigma; PIP2; 5; arabidopsis
Online: 25 July 2018 (06:24:50 CEST)
In flowering plants with dry stigmas, pollen hydration involves water movement, which may be facilitated by aquaporins. To explore the possibility underlying this biological process, we identified and characterized a mutant with a T-DNA insertion in PIP2;5, which encodes an aquaporin with water channel activity in the PIP2 subfamily. We monitored the pollination process (pollen hydration, germination, and pollen tube growth) of wild type pollen on stigmas of the mutant and wild type. Pollen hydration was postponed on the stigmas of the mutant, compared with that on wild type stigmas. However, pollen tube germination and growth was unaffected in the mutant. The PIP2;5 protein was located in the cell plasma membrane and was preferentially expressed in the stigma. Based on our results, we concluded that PIP2;5 might play an important role in water movement during pollen hydration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0498.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: fatty acid; seed oil content; fiber development; gene expression; upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)
Online: 7 August 2023 (11:55:59 CEST)
Three carbon-chain extension genes associated with fatty acid synthesis in cotton, namely GhKAR, GhHAD, and GhENR, play important roles in oil accumulation in cotton seeds. In the present study, these three genes were cloned and characterized. The expression patterns of GhKAR, GhHAD and GhENR in the high seed oil content cultivars 10H1007, 10H1014, and 10H1041 differed somewhat compared with those of 2074B with low seed oil content at different stages of seed development. GhKAR showed all three cultivars showed higher transcript levels than that of 2074B at 10, 40 and 45 DPA. The expression pattern of GhHAD showed a lower transcript level than that of 2074B at both 10 and 30 DPA but higher transcript level than that of 2074B at 40 DPA. GhENR showed a lower transcript level than that of 2074B at both 15 and 30 DPA. The highest transcript levels of GhKAR and GhENR were detected at 15 DPA in 10H1007, 10H1014, and 10H1041 compared with 2074B. From 5 to 45 days post anthesis (DPA) cotton seed, the oil content accumulated continuously in the developing seed. Oil accumulation reached the peak at 40 DPA to 45 DPA and slightly decreased in mature seed. In addition, GhKAR and GhENR showed different expression patterns in fiber and ovule development processes, in which they showed high expression levels at 20 DPA during fiber elongation stage, but their expression level peaked at 15 DPA during ovule development processes. These two genes showed the lowest expression levels at the late seed maturation stage, while GhHAD showed peak at 10 DPA of fiber development. Compared to 2074B, the oil contents of GhKAR and GhENR overexpression lines increased 1.05~1.08 folds. These results indicated that GhHAD, GhENR and GhKAR were involved in both seed oil synthesis and fiber elongation with dual biological functions in cotton.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0302.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Verticillium wilt; cotton; transmembrane protein; resistance; plant immunity
Online: 17 August 2022 (05:28:04 CEST)
Verticillium wilt (VW) is a soil borne fungal diseases caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb, and lead to serious damage to cotton production annually in the world. In our previous study, a transmembrane protein 214 protein (TMEM214) gene associated with VW resistance was map-based cloned from Gossypium barbadense (G. barbadense). TMEM214 proteins are a kind of transmembrane protein, but their function in plants is rarely studied. To reveal the function of TMEM214s in VW resistance, all six TMEM214s were cloned from G. barbadense in this study. These genes were named as GbTMEM214-1, GbTMEM214-4 and GbTMEM214-7 according to their location on the chromosomes, and the encoded proteins are all located on cell membrane. TMEM214 genes were all induced by Verticillium dahliae inoculation and showed significant differences between resistant and susceptible varieties, but the expression patterns of GbTMEM214s under different hormone treatments were significantly different. Virus-induced gene silencing analysis showed the resistance to VW of GbTMEM214s-silenced lines decreased significantly, which further proves the important role of GbTMEM214s in the resistance to Verticillium dahliae. Our study provides an insight into the involvement of GbTMEM214s in VW resistance, which was helpful to better understand the disease resistance mechanism of plants.