Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Genomics; Epigenetics; Targeted Therapy
Online: 1 October 2021 (12:23:33 CEST)
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common malignancy in children and is characterized by numerous genetic and epigenetic abnormalities. Epigenetic mechanisms, which involve DNA methylations and histone modifications, result in the heritable silencing of genes without a change in their coding sequence. Emerging studies are increasing our understanding of the epigenetic role of leukemogenesis and have demonstrated the potential of DNA methylations and histone modifications as a biomarker for lineage and subtypes classification, predicting relapse, and disease progression in ALL. Epigenetic abnormalities are relatively reversible when treated with some small molecule-based agents compared to genetic alterations. In this review, we conclude the genetic and epigenetic characteristics in ALL and discuss the future role of DNA methylation and histone modifications in predicting relapse, finally focus on the individual and precision therapy targeting epigenetic alterations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0224.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: autophagy; multi-omic analyses; metabolome; transcriptome; pollen germination; tobacco
Online: 5 September 2023 (05:10:45 CEST)
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for degrading and recycling different cellular components in both normal development and stress conditions. Our recent research demonstrated that autophagy-mediated compartmental cytoplasmic deletion is essential for pollen germination. However, how autophagy regulates pollen germination to ensure its fertility remains largely unknown. Here, we applied multi-omic analyses to investigate the downstream pathways of autophagy in the process of pollen germination. Although ATG2 and ATG5 play similar roles in regulating pollen germination, high-throughput transcriptomic analysis reveals that silencing ATG5 has greater impact on the transcriptome than silencing ATG2. Cross-comparisons of transcriptome and proteome analysis reveal that gene expression at mRNA level and protein level are differentially affected by autophagy. Furthermore, high-throughput metabolomics analysis demonstrates that pathways related amino acid metabolism and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis can be affected by both ATG2 and ATG5 silencing. Collectively, our multi-omic analyses reveal a central role of autophagy in cellular metabolism, which is critical for the initiation of pollen germination and the guarantee of pollen fertility.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0115.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Motion; Inert; Mechanical stimulation; Sensory proteins
Online: 11 January 2019 (15:51:51 CET)
Thought runs through the mind like blood runs through our body to keep us alive. Like the mind, the body does not stay inert and is in constant motion. Not a single cell in our body is left inert unless cell is under stress or dying. These scenarios are reflected upon when a person is sick, the person lies in bed with less movement; however, is active when the person is healthy. The topic of mechanical stimulation has emerged due to the increasing understanding of the physical stimulations we face each day. Further understanding of the mechanically-regulated mechanism can help us explore the pathological events in a disease. Here, we reviewed the role of sensory proteins in pathological events that are observed in cardiomyopathy, cancer, respiratory, renal, obesity, genetics, physical injury and bacterial infection. Taken together, sensory proteins are mechanically-activated which assist reception of external physical stimulation and convert into biochemical to trigger intracellular signaling cascade.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0628.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: 3D bioprinting; hydrogel; bioink; tissue engineering; bionic scaffold
Online: 20 April 2023 (08:00:19 CEST)
Regeneration of biological tissues in medicine is challenging, and 3D bioprinting offers an innovative way to create functional multicellular tissues. One common way in bioprinting is bioink which is one type of the cell-loaded hydrogel. For clinical application, however, the bioprinting still suffers from satisfactory performance, e.g. in vascularization, effective antibacterial, immunomodulation and regulation of collagen deposition. Many studies have incorporated different bioactive materials into the 3D printed scaffolds to optimize the bioprinting. Here, we review a variety of additives added to the 3D bioprinting hydrogel. The underlying mechanisms and methodology for biological regeneration are important and will provide useful basis for future research.