ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0170.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: HMW-GS; LMW-GS; MALDI-TOF-MS; Third-generation RNA sequencing; Rheological parameters
Online: 10 December 2021 (11:34:24 CET)
High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and Low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) in mature grains play important roles in the formation of glutenin macropolymer and gluten quality. To characterize the expressed glutenin genes of the bread wheat variety Xinmai 26 during seed development, in this study, we measured the dough rheological properties of mature grains through farinograph and gluten testing system, and revealed its strong gluten quality. The compositions of HMW-GS and LMW-GS were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Further, a total of 18 full-length transcripts were obtained by third-generation RNA sequencing, including 5 transcripts of HMW-GS genes and 13 transcripts of LMW-GS genes (8 intact genes and 5 pseudogenes). The deduced protein structures of transcript sequences exhibit the typical HMW-GS and LMW-GS structural characteristics. Moreover, a specific functional marker was developed to make better use of the extra cysteine residue of 1Dx5 subunit. This study provides an efficient method to accurately identify glutenin genes in bread wheat through matching full-length transcripts to their spectrum of glutenin, which will be helpful to understand the contributions of glutenin genes to wheat quality.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: HMW adiponectin; leptin; dietary patterns; breast cancer survivors
Online: 20 August 2021 (15:30:06 CEST)
Dietary pattern (DP) and its relationship with disease biomarkers has received recognition in nutritional epidemiology investigations. However, DP relationships with adipokines (i.e., adiponectin and leptin) among breast cancer survivors remain unclear. Therefore, we assessed relationships between DP with high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and leptin concentration among breast cancer survivors. This cross-sectional study involved 128 breast cancer survivors who attended the oncology outpatient clinic at two main government hospitals in East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The serum concentration of HMW adiponectin and leptin were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Reduced rank regression method was used to analyze DP. Relationships between DP with HMW adiponectin and leptin were examined using regression models. Findings showed that a one-unit increase in the ‘energy-dense, high-saturated fat and low-fiber’ DP z-score was associated with a 0.41 µg/mL lower HMW adiponectin (95% CI: -0.806, -0.014) which was independent of age, BMI, cancer stage, duration since diagnosis, education level and occupation status. A similar relationship with leptin concentration was not observed. In conclusion, ‘energy-dense, high-saturated fat and low-fiber’ DP, which is characterized by high sugar-sweetened drink and fat-based spread but low intake of fruits and vegetables, is an unhealthy dietary pattern and unfavorable for HMW adiponectin concentration but not for leptin. These findings could serve as a basis in developing specific preventive strategies that are tailored to the growing population of breast cancer survivors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0072.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Variants; COVID-19 vaccine; Chimeric adenovirus-vectored vaccine; GS linker; Neutralizing activity; Th1 immune responses
Online: 8 April 2022 (05:03:04 CEST)
Several COVID-19 platforms have been licensed across the world thus far, but vaccine platforms research that can lead to effective antigen delivery is still ongoing. Here, we constructed AdCLD-CoV19 that could modulate humoral immunity by harboring SARS-CoV-2 antigens onto a chimeric adenovirus 5/35 platform that was effective in cellular immunity. By replacing the S1/S2 furin cleavage sequence of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) protein mounted on AdCLD-CoV19 with the linker sequence, high antigen expression was confirmed in various cell lines. The high levels of antigen expression contributed to antigen-specific antibody activity in mice and non-human primates (NHPs) with single vaccination of AdCLD-CoV19. Furthermore, the adenovirus-induced Th1 immune response was specifically raised for the S protein, and these immune responses protected the NHP against live viruses. While AdCLD-CoV19 maintained neutralizing antibody activity against various SARS-CoV-2 variants, it was reduced to single vaccination for β and ο variants, and the reduced neutralizing antibody activity was restored with booster shots. Hence, AdCLD-CoV19 can prevent SARS-CoV-2 with single vaccination, and the new vaccine administration strategy that responds to various variants can maintain the efficacy of the vaccine.