REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0385.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Space Science Keywords: Agriculture; Copernicus,; Sentinel 1; Sentinel 2; Literature Review,; EO4Agri
Online: 23 December 2021 (11:45:41 CET)
Copernicus is Europe's space-based Earth monitoring asset, which consists of a complex set of systems that collect data from different sources: remote sensing satellites (RS) and in-situ sensors such as ground stations, airborne and marine sensors. This study was originally prepared for the needs of the Czech agricultural community, where we provided an in-depth analysis of articles related to Earth observation in precision agriculture. At a later stage, we extended this study by comparing the recommendations of the European EO4Agri project and scientific articles published in MDPI. We had two important objectives, one was to validate the results of the EO4Agri project and the other was to look for gaps in current research and community needs. To recognize the importance of using Sentinel 1 data, we also added a specific analysis of methods for data fusion of Sentinel 1 and Sentinel 2 data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0573.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: crowdsourcing; citizen science; agriculture; street-view; in-situ; LUCAS; Copernicus
Online: 28 September 2018 (16:30:41 CEST)
New approaches to collect in-situ data are needed to complement the high spatial (10~m) and temporal (5-day) resolution of Copernicus Sentinel satellite observations. Making sense of Sentinel observations requires high quality and timely in-situ data for training and validation. Classical ground truth collection is expensive, lacks scale, fails to exploit opportunities for automation, and is prone to sampling error. Here we evaluate the potential contribution of opportunistically exploiting crowd-sourced street-level imagery to collect massive high-quality in-situ data in the context of crop monitoring. This study assesses this potential by answering two questions: 1) what is the spatial availability of these images across the European Union (EU)? and 2) can these images be transformed to useful data? To answer the first question, we evaluated the EU availability of street-level images on Mapillary - the largest open-access platform for such images - against the Land Use and land Cover Area frame Survey (LUCAS) 2018, a systematic surveyed sampling of 337031 points. For 37.78% of the LUCAS points a crowd-sourced image is available within a 2-km buffer, with a mean distance of 816.11 m. We estimate that 9.44% of the EU territory has a crowd-sourced image within 300-m from a LUCAS point, illustrating the huge potential of crowd-sourcing as a complementary sampling tool. After artificial and built up (63.14%), and inland water (43.67%) land cover classes, arable land has the highest availability at 40.78%. To answer the second question, we focus on identifying crops at parcel level using all 13.6 million Mapillary images collected in the Netherlands. Only 1.9% of the contributors generated 75.15% of the images. A procedure was developed to select and harvest the pictures potentially best suited to identify crops using the geometries of 785710 Dutch parcels and the pictures' meta-data such as camera orientation and focal length. Availability of crowd-sourced imagery looking at parcels was assessed for 8 different crop groups with the 2017 parcel level declarations. Parcel revisits during the growing season allowed to track crop growth. Examples illustrate the capacity to recognize crops and their phenological development on crowd-sourced street-level imagery. Consecutive images taken during the same capture track allow selecting the image with the best unobstructed view. In the future, dedicated crop capture tasks can improve image quality and expand coverage in rural areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0410.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: plastic; tyres; waste; greenhouses; remote sensing; Copernicus; Sentinel-1; Sentinel-2
Online: 28 September 2022 (03:32:19 CEST)
The detection of waste plastics in the marine and terrestrial environment using satellite Earth Observation data offers the possibility of large-scale mapping, and reducing on-the-ground manual investigation. In addition, costs are kept to a minimum by utilizing free-to-access Copernicus data. A Machine Learning based classifier was developed to run on Sentinel-1 and -2 data. In support of the training and validation, a dataset was created with terrestrial and aquatic cases by manually digitizing varying landcover classes alongside plastics under the sub-categories of greenhouses, plastic, tyres and waste sites. The trained classifier, including an Artificial Neural Network and post-processing decision tree, was verified using five locations encompassing these different forms of plastic. Although exact matchups are challenging to digitize, the performance has generated high accuracy statistics, and the resulting land cover classifications have been used to map the occurrence of plastic waste in aquatic and terrestrial environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0227.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: digital aerial photogrammetry; SAR; model-assisted; biomass estimation; Copernicus; unmanned aerial vehicles
Online: 19 December 2018 (02:56:20 CET)
Due to the increasing importance of mangroves in climate change mitigation projects, more accurate and cost-effective aboveground biomass (AGB) monitoring methods are required. However, field measurement of AGB may be a challenge because of its remote location and the difficulty to walk in these areas. This study is based on the Livelihoods Fund’ Oceanium project of 10,000 hectare mangrove plantations monitoring. In a first step, the possibility of replacing traditional field measurements of sample plots in a young mangrove plantation by a semiautomatic processing of UAV-based photogrammetric point clouds was assessed. In a second step, Sentinel-1 radar and Sentinel-2 optical imagery were used as auxiliary information to estimate AGB and its variance for the entire study area under a model-assisted framework. AGB was measured using UAV imagery in a total of 95 sample plots. UAV plot data was used in combination with non-parametric Support Vector Regression (SVR) models for the estimation of the study area AGB using model-assisted estimators. Purely UAV-based AGB estimates and their associated standard error (SE) were compared with model-assisted estimates using (1) Sentinel-1, (2) Sentinel-2 and (3) a combination of Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data as auxiliary information. The validation of the UAV-based individual tree height and crown diameter measurements showed a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.21 m and 0.32 m respectively. Relative efficiency of the three model-assisted scenarios ranged between 1.61 and 2.15. Although all SVR models improved the efficiency of the monitoring over UAV-based estimates, the best results were achieved when a combination of Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data was used. Results indicated that the methodology used in this research can provide accurate and cost-effective estimates of AGB in mangrove young plantations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0586.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Sea level; GNSS; NEMO reanalysis; tide gauges; pressure buoys; geoid model; CMEMS; Copernicus
Online: 26 August 2020 (12:35:30 CEST)
Multimission satellite altimetry (e.g. ERS, Envisat, TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason) data have enabled a synoptic view of ocean variations in the past decades, including sea-level rise and mesoscale circulations. Since 2016, the Sentinel-3 mission has provided better spatial and temporal sampling compared with its predecessors. The Sentinel-3 Ku/C Radar Altimeter (SRAL) is one of the synthetic aperture radar altimeters (SAR Altimeter) which is more precise in coastal and lake observations. In this study, we validate Sentinel-3 Level-2 products in Baltic Sea coastal areas and two lakes in Estonia. Moreover, the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) Level-3 sea-level anomaly data and the Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) reanalysis model outcomes are compared with measurements from a tide gauge network. A dense in situ water level network deployed along the coast for geodetic observation was utilised to provide ground truths for validating altimetry results. Three validation methods were used for Level-2 data: (i) collocated Sentinel-3 and GNSS ship measurements; (ii) a national geoid model (EST-GEOID2017) with sea-level anomaly correction; (iii) collocated Sentinel-3 and buoy measurements. The validations were carried out in seven Sentinel-3A/B overpasses in 2019. Our results show that the uncertainty of the Sentinel-3 Level-2 altimetry product is below decimetre level on the Estonian coast and the targeted lakes. Results from CMEMS Level-3 showed a correlation of 0.8 (RMSE 0.19 m) and 0.91 (RMSE 0.27 m) when compared against tide gauge measurements and NEMO model, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0051.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Space Science Keywords: Copernicus; buried basin; mascons; multi source remote sensing data; planetary geology; plane-tary topography; geomorphology
Online: 6 June 2022 (02:56:50 CEST)
Masons are often overlooked part of impact basins, but play an important role in revealing the lunar history. Previous study in masons were usually limited to gravity data. Few researches were reported on morphology features and chronology, which hampers the construction of a complete geological interpretation for the evolution of each mascons. We use multi source remote sensing data to identify the details characteristic of mascons. Result of topography, gravity and characteristic are combined to prove that a mason beside Copernicus crater is a buried peak-ring basin which is about 130km and 260km in diameter. The underground structure is of confirmed as 890m thick mare basalts by analyzing the spectral feature of the material in a geological outcrop called Copernicus H. Geology evolution analysis joint crater size-frequency distribution (CSDF) dating demonstrate that the buried basin impact event occurred in 3.6Ga. Then a hawaiian-style eruption in late Imbrian formed Sinus Aestuum Ⅰ Dark Mantling Deposit (DMD). Mare basalts filling in 3.4Ga. After that, ejecta from Copernicus impact event in about 820Ma and weathering processes cause the disappearing from lunar surface of the buried basin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0489.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Agriculture; Copernicus initiative; Farming; Food traceability; Organic Farming; Rice; Rice paddy fields; Water Management; Sentinels
Online: 20 May 2021 (12:32:52 CEST)
Whereas a vast literature exists on satellite-based mapping of rice paddy fields in Asia, where most of the global production takes place, little has been produced so far that focuses on the European context. Detection and mapping methods that work well in the Asian context will not offer the same performances in Europe, where different seasonal cycles, environmental contexts, and rice varieties make distinctive features dissimilar to the Asian case. In this context, water management is a key clue; watering practices are distinctive for rice with respect to other crops, and within rice there exist diverse cultivation practices including organic and non-organic approaches. In this paper, we focus on satellite-observed water management to identify rice paddy fields cultivated with a traditional agricultural approach. Building on established research results, and guided by the output of experiments on real-world cases, a new method for analysing time series of Sentinel-1 data has been developed, which can identify traditional rice fields with a high degree of reliability. This work is a part of a broader initiative to build space-based tools for collecting additional pieces of evidence to support food chain traceability; the whole system will consider various parameters, whose analysis procedures are still at their early stages of development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0009.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Sentinel-2; remote sensing; European Space Agency; Copernicus; continental; cloud-free; composite; darkest pixel; maximum NDVI
Online: 2 June 2017 (05:03:53 CEST)
The processing of cloud free geo-referenced imagery is one of the preliminary processing step of any land application. This letter describe the methodology developed to obtain a seamless cloud free composite of Africa for 2016 using Sentinel-2A data at 10 meters resolution freely available from the European Space Agency. The method is based on an hybrid method resulting from the merging of the two most robust time series methods namely the "darkest pixel" and the "maximum NDVI" previously developed with AVHRR time series.