COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0103.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Treatment wetlands; Greenhouse gas emission; clogging; water quality; Phragmites australis
Online: 6 December 2022 (11:39:32 CET)
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of solids accumulation on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, substrate, plant growth and performance of a horizontal flow (HF) treatment wetland (TW) planted with Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. sub sp. australis. The study was carried out in an eight-year-old full-scale HF-TW located in the Mediterranean region (Sicily, Italy). To collect data inside the HF unit, nine observation points (besides the inlet and the outlet) along three 8.5 m long transects (T1, T2, and T3) were identified. The first transect (close to the inlet zone) showed hydraulic conductivity (Ks) reduction of about one order of magnitude higher than the other two. Results highlighted GHG emissions increasing during the summer when temperature and solar radiation were higher than in the rest of the year. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emis-sions decreased from T1 to T3, with maximum monthly values in T1 (21.4 g CO2 m-2 d-1) about double with respect to T2 (12.6 g CO2 m-2 d-1) and T3 (10.7 g CO2 m-2 d-1) observed in July. The CO2 seasonal trend was similar to that of P. Australis growth. Theoretical me-thane (CH4) emissions followed the trend of volatile solids (VS), which was about 3.5 and 4 times in T1 to T2 and T3. The highest CH4 emissions in T1 were probably due to anaerobic bacteria (methanogens) that proliferated in the waterlogged, anoxic part of TW. The pore-clogging affected the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency which de-creasing from T1 to T3 for the observation period. Notwithstanding this behaviour, the final effluent quality was very satisfactory with the average value of COD removal efficiency above 90%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0075.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: ANCOVA; Blockage; Clogging; Efficient; Green infrastructure; Infiltration bed; Orifice; Perforation; Performance; Philadelphia; Pipe; Stormwater
Online: 4 July 2018 (15:18:14 CEST)
Performance of flow through orifices on a perforated distribution pipe between periods with and without partial clogging (submersion of part of the distribution pipe) was compared. The distribution pipe directly receives runoff and delivers it to an underground infiltration bed. Partial clogging appeared in winter but reduced in summer. Performance was defined as flow rate divided by l_eff (h_(d,mean)^0.5) where h_(d,mean) is the mean pressure head that drives flow and l_eff is the effective pipe length (length of water column with pipe water volume and the pipe cross-sectional area). ANCOVA (ANalysis of COVAriance) was adopted to examine the clogging effects with flow rate plotted against l_eff (h_(d,mean)^0.5) . Partial clogging had a significant effect on pipe performance during periods of low or no rainfall. However, if only data during larger storms was considered, little evidence showed that partial clogging had effects on pipe delivery performance. Partial clogging might be caused by leaves accumulated in the lower section of the pipe in winter, and its effect was insignificant when water level rose in the pipe, utilizing significantly more orifices on the distribution pipe, thus the effect from the clogged portion had negligible impact on system performance. Larger storms might also provide the required flow rate to move the debris block thus exposing the orifices. Partial clogging did not increase the tendency of overflow; therefore, current maintenance schedule was sufficient to keep the distribution pipe at satisfactory performance even though partial clogging can exist.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0024.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: infiltration based BMP’s; flood; infiltration; clogging; soil permeability; underdrain; soil saturation rate; drainage basin; urban drainage
Online: 3 February 2019 (03:05:39 CET)
Infiltration based stormwater best management practices bring considerable economic, social and ecological benefits. Controlling stormwater quantity and quality are primarily important to prevent urban flooding and minimizing loads of pollutants to the receiving waters. However, there have been growing concerns about how the traditional design approach contributes to the failure of infiltration based BMP’s that have caused flooding, ponding, prolonged movement of surface water, and frequent clogging, etc. Many of these problems were due to the fact that the current design approaches of stormwater BMP’s only focus on surface hydrology and give little or no attention to the underline subsoil permeability rate and other constraints during the design and sizing process. As a result, we are exhibiting many newly constructed infiltration based BMP’s are failing to function well. This paper presents and demonstrates a new paradigm shift in designing infiltration-based stormwater BMP’s by combining subsurface hydrology and undelaying native soil constraints to establish acceptable criteria for sizing infiltration based BMPs.