ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0037.v2
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: GNSS; RFID; obscuration, augmentation, radio-navigation
Online: 3 September 2020 (07:44:14 CEST)
The CoDRIVE solution builds on R&D in the development of connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs). The mainstay of the system is a low-cost GNSS receiver integrated with a MEMS grade IMU powered with CoDRIVE algorithms and high precision data processing software. The solution integrates RFID (radio-frequency identification) localisation information derived from tags installed in the roads around the University of Nottingham. This aids the positioning solution by correcting the long-term drift of inertial navigation technology in the absence of GNSS. The solution is informed of obscuration of GNSS through city models of skyview and elevation masks derived from 360-degree photography. The results show that predictive intelligence of the denial of GNSS and RFID aiding realises significant benefits compared to the inertial only solution. According to the validation, inertial only solutions drift over time, with an overall RMS accuracy over a 300 metres section of GNSS outage of 10 to 20 metres. After deploying the RFID tags on the road, experiments show that the RFID aided algorithm is able to constrain the maximum error to within 3.76 metres, and with 93.9% of points constrained to 2 metres accuracy overall.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0175.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: wind turbine; wake; atmospheric stability; MOST; turbulence models
Online: 16 August 2019 (07:52:44 CEST)
Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) overestimates wind shear in some atmospheric stable conditions, i.e. Richardson number $R_f<0.25$. The overestimated wind shear that leads to an under-predicted friction wind speed and a lower ambient turbulence intensity for a given hub-height reference wind speed and a given roughness length, could influence wake modeling of a wind turbine. This work investigates the side effects of the breakdown of MOST on wake modeling under stable conditions and makes some modifications to the flow similarity functions to eliminate these side effects. Based on a field measurement in a wind farm, we firstly show that MOST predicts a larger wind shear for the atmospheric stability parameter $\zeta>0.1$ and proposes new flow similarity functions without constraining $R_f$ to limit the overestimated wind shear by MOST. Next, different turbulence models based on MOST and a modified one based on the new similarity functions are investigated through numerical simulations. These turbulence models are combined with the actuator disk model (AD) and Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations (RANS) to model wind turbine wakes under stable conditions. As compared to measurements, numerical results show that turbulence models based on MOST result in larger wake deficits and slower wake recovery rate with a square root of the mean-squared-error (RSME) of wake deficit in the range of 0.07-0.18. This overestimated wake effect is improved by applying the new similarity functions and the RSME of wake deficit is averagely reduced by 0.05. Finally, we check the role of the under-predicted turbulence intensity playing in the larger wake deficit predicted by models based MOST. Additional numerical simulations using the modified turbulence model are carried out, in which the roughness length is reduced to impose a hub-height ambient turbulence intensity equivalent to the MOST case. Simulation results show that reducing turbulence intensity enhances wake effects, however, it cannot reproduce the large wake deficit predicted by models based on MOST, which suggests that the overestimated wake effect by MOST could be also related to the overestimated wind shear.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0029.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: wind turbine; wake; atmospheric stability; actuator disk; BEM
Online: 2 July 2019 (04:11:13 CEST)
Atmospheric stability affects wind turbine wakes significantly. High-fidelity approaches such as large eddy simulations (LES) with the actuator line (AL) model which predicts detailed wake structures, fail to be applied in wind farm engineering applications due to its expensive cost. In order to make wind farm simulations computationally affordable, this paper proposes a new actuator disk model (AD) based on the blade element method (BEM) and combined with Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations (RANS) to model turbine wakes under different atmospheric stability conditions. In the proposed model, the upstream reference velocity is firstly estimated from the disk averaged velocity based on the one-dimensional momentum theory, and then is used to evaluate the rotor speed to calculate blade element forces. Flow similarity functions based on field measurement are applied to limit wind shear under strongly stable conditions, and turbulence source terms are added to take the buoyant-driven effects into consideration. Results from the new AD model are compared with field measurements and results from the AD model based on the thrust coefficient, the BEM-AD model with classical similarity functions and a high-fidelity LES approach. The results show that the proposed method is better in simulating wakes under various atmospheric stability conditions than the other AD models and has a similar performance to the high-fidelity LES approach however in much lower computational cost.