ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0792.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Baltic Dry Index; Covid-19; Stepwise Regression
Online: 11 May 2023 (05:11:46 CEST)
The outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020 caused significant disruptions to global shipping and the world economy. This paper aims to investigate the impact of the pandemic on global shipping by analyzing the Baltic Dry Index (BDI). The BDI is a metric that reflects the worldwide shipping costs and directs related to supply and demand conditions, making it an indicator of economic production. The study utilizes data from 2019 to 2021, before and after the outbreak of COVID-19, and considers 13 independent variables, including raw materials, energy, stock market indexes, global port calls, and confirmed COVID-19 cases to investigate how to influent the BDI. The study employs stepwise regression to select variables and build models before and after the pandemic. The findings reveal that the key factors affecting the freight index BDI before the outbreak are: international scrap steel prices, iron ore prices, and the Commodity Research Bureau Index. However, after the COVID-19 outbreak, the factors affecting the BDI changed to the Shanghai Index, global port calls, and the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0276.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: copepoda; secondary production; mortality rates; Baltic sea; gulf of Gdańsk
Online: 25 April 2019 (08:05:58 CEST)
The main objective of this paper was description of seasonal and interannual trends in secondary production and mortality rates of the three most important Copepoda taxa in the Gulf of Gdańsk (southern Baltic Sea). Samples were collected monthly from 6 stations located in the western part of the Gulf of Gdańsk during three research periods: 1998-2000, 2006-2007 and 2010-2012. Production was computed basing on copepod biomass and mortality rates estimated according to vertical life table approach. Redundancy analysis was used to investigate relationship between secondary production and environmental conditions. Considering the entire research period there was significant interannual and seasonal variability of secondary production, mortality rate as well as abundance and biomass anomalies. Conducted analysis revealed correlation between increasing temperature and production of Acartia spp. and T.longicornis developmental stages, while older copepodites of P.acuspes showed almost negative correlation with temperature. The mortality rate estimations obtained for Acartia spp. Were highest in summer, while for T.longicornis peak was usually noted in spring-summer period. Lowest mortality rate estimations were noted in autumn and winter for almost all stages of investigated taxa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0045.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: ports, waste management, Baltic Sea, cruise ships, sea environment, recycling
Online: 7 April 2017 (12:44:20 CEST)
The cruise ship industry has become a well-implemented industry in the Baltic Sea area, and each year, the number of cruise ship passengers rises steadily. Efficient waste management in cruising ports around the Baltic Sea is a crucial element in minimizing environmental impacts. This research involves the four selected ports of Copenhagen, Helsinki, Stockholm and Tallinn. The study applies statistics and interview data to the analysis of waste management systems for cruise ship-generated waste. The interview data involves 14 executives and professionals responsible for environmental issues and decision making in their respective ports. The interviews highlighted the need for standardized environmental legislation and related procedures, which would result in coherent measurement systems. These systems would enable transparent environmental monitoring, thus maintaining the ports’ competitiveness. A common environmental legislation would support the emerging waste management system for the whole Baltic Sea area. We suggest that ports should focus on handling specific types of wastes and collaborate as a spatial network. Specialization to allow discharge of certain fractions of waste is essential. The paper concludes by addressing demands for future research, particularly vessel- and customer behavior focused studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0159.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: atmospheric mercury; Baltic Sea; mapping of TGM levels; long range transport
Online: 24 November 2017 (09:00:15 CET)
Mercury is a toxic pollutant emitted from both natural sources and through human activities. A global interest in atmospheric mercury has risen ever since the discovery of the Minamata disease in 1956. Properties of gaseous elemental mercury enable long range transport which can cause pollution even in pristine environments. Total gaseous mercury (TGM) was measured from winter 2016 to spring 2017 over the Baltic Sea. A Tekran 2357A mercury analyser was installed aboard the research and icebreaking vessel Oden for the purpose of continuous measurements of gaseous mercury in ambient air. Measurements were performed during a campaign along the Swedish east coast and in the Bothnian Bay near Lulea during the icebreaking season. Data was evaluated from Gothenburg using a plotting software and back trajectories for air masses were calculated. The TGM average of 1.365 ± 0.054 ng/m3 during winter and 1.288 ± 0.140 ng/m3 during spring was calculated as well as a total average of 1.362 ± 0.158 ng/m3. Back trajectories showed a possible correlation of anthropogenic sources elevating the mercury background level in some areas. There were also indications of depleted air, i.e., air with lower concentrations than average, being transported from the Arctic to northern Sweden resulting in a drop in TGM levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0138.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: air pollution; monitoring; lichen; Hypogymnia physodes; trace elements; South-East Baltic
Online: 18 May 2017 (04:48:14 CEST)
Epiphytic lichens are well-known indicators of air contamination. The chemical composition of lichens is affected by the concentration of pollutants in the environment. Usually, researchers assess long-term variations in trace elements or other pollutants in the study area or identify the spatial features of air contamination. The aim of this study is to create a database of trace element concentrations in the samples of the epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes growing in the Kaliningrad region. The database can be used as a ‘reference point’ for monitoring studies. Another objective is to identify the spatial patterns of iron, manganese, nickel, cadmium, silver, lead, strontium, rubidium, and calcium in the Kaliningrad region. The samples of wild lichens were collected from pine and birch trees 1.2-1.8 m from the bases of the threes, using a regular grid, in August 2010. One-two-year-old thalli were used in the chemical analysis. The metals Ag, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Zn were determined by AAS (Mn, Fe by flame AAS and the others by ETA-AAS) and the elements Sr, Rb, and Ca by X-ray fluorescence. The concentration of metals in the western coastal area (the Sambian or Kaliningrad Peninsula) is higher than it is in the central and eastern parts of the region. Principal component factor analysis was carried out to detect and characterise different pollution sources and to identify the most polluted areas. The factors of metal emission were described. The authors examined the features of the spatial distribution of trace elements. Prevailing winds are form south-west. Therefore, the highest concentrations of trace elements were found on the Sambian peninsula and on the coasts of the Vistula and Curonian Lagoons. The high concentrations of trace elements in the samples of the lichen H.physodes, which were observed in the coastal part of the region, are associated with human impact and subsequent pollution. The chemical composition of lichens on the Sambian peninsula may have developed under the impact of both local pollution sources – vehicles, thermal energy facilities, and ports – and such factors as transboundary traffic and sea spray.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0210.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: oysters; eastern Baltic Sea; zooarchaeology; archaeomalacology; written sources; archaeological finds; medieval; early modern
Online: 15 March 2022 (11:23:59 CET)
Along most of the European littoral, oysters were appreciated as a wholesome and palatable food since the Stone Age, yet were transported much further from their natural habitats when long-distance trade in marine foodstuffs began in medieval times. The brackish waters of the Baltic Sea are not considered a suitable environment for this mussel, and therefore all archaeological oyster shell finds are the result of import to the eastern Baltic. In this study, over 1000 shells found in different medieval and early modern archaeological contexts in Estonia were analysed and the obtained data recorded in a data repository. Some conclusions are set out, based on shell size and shape, and breakage traces, but more detailed taphonomic studies are left for the future. The study identifies the earliest imports of oysters recorded by archaeological material and written sources. Both show records not much earlier than the 16th century AD. Although no information is preserved about the exact origin of oysters imported to Estonia, the oyster beds most probably exploited are those in the central eastern North Sea, i.e. the Wadden Sea.