Preprint Article Version 1 This version not peer reviewed

Air Pollution Monitoring in the south-east baltic using the epiphytic lichen hypogymnia physodes

Version 1 : Received: 17 May 2017 / Approved: 18 May 2017 / Online: 18 May 2017 (04:48:14 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Koroleva, Y.; Revunkov, V. Air Pollution Monitoring in the south-east baltic using the epiphytic lichen hypogymnia physodes. Atmosphere 2017, 8, 119. Koroleva, Y.; Revunkov, V. Air Pollution Monitoring in the south-east baltic using the epiphytic lichen hypogymnia physodes. Atmosphere 2017, 8, 119.

Journal reference: Atmosphere 2017, 8, 119
DOI: 10.3390/atmos8070119

Abstract

Epiphytic lichens are well-known indicators of air contamination. The chemical composition of lichens is affected by the concentration of pollutants in the environment. Usually, researchers assess long-term variations in trace elements or other pollutants in the study area or identify the spatial features of air contamination. The aim of this study is to create a database of trace element concentrations in the samples of the epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes growing in the Kaliningrad region. The database can be used as a ‘reference point’ for monitoring studies. Another objective is to identify the spatial patterns of iron, manganese, nickel, cadmium, silver, lead, strontium, rubidium, and calcium in the Kaliningrad region. The samples of wild lichens were collected from pine and birch trees 1.2-1.8 m from the bases of the threes, using a regular grid, in August 2010. One-two-year-old thalli were used in the chemical analysis. The metals Ag, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Zn were determined by AAS (Mn, Fe by flame AAS and the others by ETA-AAS) and the elements Sr, Rb, and Ca by X-ray fluorescence. The concentration of metals in the western coastal area (the Sambian or Kaliningrad Peninsula) is higher than it is in the central and eastern parts of the region. Principal component factor analysis was carried out to detect and characterise different pollution sources and to identify the most polluted areas. The factors of metal emission were described. The authors examined the features of the spatial distribution of trace elements. Prevailing winds are form south-west. Therefore, the highest concentrations of trace elements were found on the Sambian peninsula and on the coasts of the Vistula and Curonian Lagoons. The high concentrations of trace elements in the samples of the lichen H.physodes, which were observed in the coastal part of the region, are associated with human impact and subsequent pollution. The chemical composition of lichens on the Sambian peninsula may have developed under the impact of both local pollution sources – vehicles, thermal energy facilities, and ports – and such factors as transboundary traffic and sea spray.

Subject Areas

air pollution; monitoring; lichen; Hypogymnia physodes; trace elements; South-East Baltic

Readers' Comments and Ratings (0)

Leave a public comment
Send a private comment to the author(s)
Rate this article
Views 0
Downloads 0
Comments 0
Metrics 0
Leave a public comment

×
Alerts
Notify me about updates to this article or when a peer-reviewed version is published.