Preprint Article Version 3 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

A Quantum-Classical Model of Brain Dynamics

Version 1 : Received: 21 January 2023 / Approved: 22 January 2023 / Online: 22 January 2023 (04:11:47 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 28 January 2023 / Approved: 29 January 2023 / Online: 29 January 2023 (02:46:38 CET)
Version 3 : Received: 1 March 2023 / Approved: 6 March 2023 / Online: 6 March 2023 (04:43:10 CET)
Version 4 : Received: 30 March 2023 / Approved: 31 March 2023 / Online: 31 March 2023 (04:29:56 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Sergi, A.; Messina, A.; Vicario, C.M.; Martino, G. A Quantum–Classical Model of Brain Dynamics. Entropy 2023, 25, 592, doi:10.3390/e25040592. Sergi, A.; Messina, A.; Vicario, C.M.; Martino, G. A Quantum–Classical Model of Brain Dynamics. Entropy 2023, 25, 592, doi:10.3390/e25040592.


The study of the human psyche has elucidated a bipartite structure of cognition reflecting the quantum-classical nature of any process that generates knowledge and learning governed by brain activity. Acknowledging the importance of such a finding for modelization, we posit an approach to study brain by means of the quantum-classical dynamics of a Mixed Weyl symbol. The Mixed Weyl symbol is used to describe brain processes at the microscopic level and, when averaged over an appropriate ensemble, provides a link to the results of measurements made at the mesoscopic scale. Within this approach, quantum variables (such as,for example, nuclear and electron spins, dipole momenta of particles or molecules, tunneling degrees of freedom, etc may be represented by spinors while the electromagnetic fields and phonon modes involved in the processes are treated either classically or semi-classically, by also considering quantum zero-point fluctuations. Zero-point quantum effects can be incorporated into numerical simulations by controlling the temperature of each field mode via coupling to a dedicated Nosè-Hoover chain thermostat. The temperature of each thermostat is chosen in order to reproduce quantum statistics in the canonical ensemble. In this first paper, we introduce a quantum-classical model of brain dynamics, clarifying its mathematical strucure and focusing the discussion on its predictive value. Analytical consequences of the model are not reported in this paper, since they are left for future work. Our treatment incorporates compatible features of three well-known quantum approaches to brain dynamics - namely the electromagnetic field theory approach, the orchestrated objective reduction theory, and the dissipative quantum model of the brain - and hints at convincing arguments that sustain the existence of quantum-classical processes in the brain activity. All three models are reviewed.


quantum-classical dynamics; quantum brain; open quantum systems; neuroscience; electromagnetic brain stimulation; clinical psychology


Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 6 March 2023
Commenter: Alessandro Sergi
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: Major revision. Authorshio change.
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