Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Strain Characterisation for Measuring Bioefficacy of ITNs Treated with Two Active Ingredients (Dual-AI ITNs): Developing a Robust Protocol by Building Consensus

Version 1 : Received: 24 March 2022 / Approved: 25 March 2022 / Online: 25 March 2022 (14:12:38 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Lees, R.S.; Armistead, J.S.; Azizi, S.; Constant, E.; Fornadel, C.; Gimnig, J.E.; Hemingway, J.; Impoinvil, D.; Irish, S.R.; Kisinza, W.; Lissenden, N.; Mawejje, H.D.; Messenger, L.A.; Moore, S.; Ngufor, C.; Oxborough, R.; Protopopoff, N.; Ranson, H.; Small, G.; Wagman, J.; Weetman, D.; Zohdy, S.; Spiers, A. Strain Characterisation for Measuring Bioefficacy of ITNs Treated with Two Active Ingredients (Dual-AI ITNs): Developing a Robust Protocol by Building Consensus. Insects 2022, 13, 434. Lees, R.S.; Armistead, J.S.; Azizi, S.; Constant, E.; Fornadel, C.; Gimnig, J.E.; Hemingway, J.; Impoinvil, D.; Irish, S.R.; Kisinza, W.; Lissenden, N.; Mawejje, H.D.; Messenger, L.A.; Moore, S.; Ngufor, C.; Oxborough, R.; Protopopoff, N.; Ranson, H.; Small, G.; Wagman, J.; Weetman, D.; Zohdy, S.; Spiers, A. Strain Characterisation for Measuring Bioefficacy of ITNs Treated with Two Active Ingredients (Dual-AI ITNs): Developing a Robust Protocol by Building Consensus. Insects 2022, 13, 434.

Journal reference: Insects 2022, 13, 434
DOI: 10.3390/insects13050434

Abstract

Durability monitoring of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) containing a pyrethroid in combination with a second active ingredient (AI) must be adapted so that the insecticidal bioefficacy of each AI can be monitored independently. An effective way to do this is to measure rapid knock down of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of mosquitoes to assess the bioefficacy of the pyrethroid component and to use a pyrethroid-resistant strain to measure the bioefficacy of the second ingredient. To allow robust comparison of results across tests within and between test facilities, and over time, protocols for bioefficacy testing must include either characterisation of the resistant strain, standardisation of the mosquitoes used for bioassays, or a combination of the two. Through a series of virtual meetings, key stakeholders and practitioners explored different approaches to achieving these goals. Via an iterative process we decided on the preferred approach and produced a protocol consisting of characterising mosquitoes used for bioefficacy testing before and after a round of bioassays, for example at each time point in a durability monitoring study. We present the final protocol and justify our approach to establishing a standard methodology for durability monitoring of ITNs containing pyrethroid and a second AI.

Keywords

insecticide-treated nets (ITN); pyrethroid; mosquito; strain characterisation; insecticide resistance; method development; durability monitoring; product evaluation; quality control (QC); dual active ingredients (dual-AI); bioefficacy

Subject

BIOLOGY, Entomology

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