Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Portable Neuroimaging Guided Non-invasive Brain Stimulation of Cortico-cerebello-thalamo-cortical Loop in Substance Use Disorder

Version 1 : Received: 30 December 2021 / Approved: 4 January 2022 / Online: 4 January 2022 (14:47:00 CET)

How to cite: Walia, P.; Ghosh, A.; Singh, S.; Dutta, A. Portable Neuroimaging Guided Non-invasive Brain Stimulation of Cortico-cerebello-thalamo-cortical Loop in Substance Use Disorder. Preprints 2022, 2022010008 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202201.0008.v1). Walia, P.; Ghosh, A.; Singh, S.; Dutta, A. Portable Neuroimaging Guided Non-invasive Brain Stimulation of Cortico-cerebello-thalamo-cortical Loop in Substance Use Disorder. Preprints 2022, 2022010008 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202201.0008.v1).

Abstract

Background: Maladaptive neuroplasticity related learned response in substance use disorder (SUD) can be ameliorated using non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS); however, inter-individual variability needs to be addressed for clinical translation. Objective: Our first objective was to develop a hypothesis for NIBS for learned response in SUD based on competing neurobehavioral decision systems model. Next objective was to conduct computational simulation of NIBS of cortico-cerebello-thalamo-cortical (CCTC) loop in cannabis use disorder (CUD) related dysfunctional “cue-reactivity” – a closely related construct of “craving” that is a core symptom. Our third objective was to test the feasibility of our neuroimaging guided rational NIBS approach in healthy humans. Methods: “Cue-reactivity” can be measured using behavioral paradigms and portable neuroimaging, including functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and electroencephalogram (EEG), metrics of sensorimotor gating. Therefore, we conducted computational simulation of NIBS, including transcranial direct current stimulation(tDCS) and transcranial alternating current stimulation(tACS) of the cerebellar cortex and deep cerebellar nuclei(DCN), of the CCTC loop for its postulated effects on fNIRS and EEG metrics. We also developed a rational neuroimaging guided NIBS approach for cerebellar lobule (VII) and prefrontal cortex based on healthy human study. Results: Simulation study of cerebellar tDCS induced gamma oscillations in the cerebral cortex while tTIS induced gamma-to-beta frequency shift. Experimental fNIRS study found that 2mA cerebellar tDCS evoked similar oxyhemoglobin(HbO) response in-the-range of 5x10-6M across cerebellum and PFC brain regions (=0.01); however, infra-slow (0.01–0.10 Hz) prefrontal cortex HbO driven(phase-amplitude-coupling, PAC) 4Hz, ±2mA (max.) cerebellar tACS evoked HbO in-the-range of 10-7M that was statistically different (=0.01) across those brain regions. Conclusion: Our healthy human study showed the feasibility of fNIRS of cerebellum and PFC as well as fNIRS-driven ctACS at 4Hz that may facilitate cerebellar cognitive function via the frontoparietal network. Future work needs to combine fNIRS with EEG for multi-modal imaging.

Keywords

functional near-infrared spectroscopy; electroencephalogram; cortico-cerebello-thalamo-cortical loop; transcranial electrical stimulation; transcranial magnetic stimulation

Subject

BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES, Behavioral Neuroscience

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