Khalil, A.; Batool, A.; Arif, S. Healthy Cattle Microbiome and Dysbiosis in Diseased Phenotypes. Ruminants2022, 2, 134-156.
Khalil, A.; Batool, A.; Arif, S. Healthy Cattle Microbiome and Dysbiosis in Diseased Phenotypes. Ruminants 2022, 2, 134-156.
: Cattle farming is an ancient practice, with roots in the early Neolithic era that has retained its status in the food industry today, with global beef market revenue amounting to $385.7B, as of 2018. Hence, cattle maintenance is naturally essential to cater to nutritional requirements of modern civilization. This extensive review aims to provide a holistic overview of cattle microbiome, analysing the native microbial composition within respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, reproductive tract, and skin. The dysbiosis associated with various diseases such as bovine respiratory disease, bovine digital dermatitis, mastitis, Johne's disease, uterine diseases (metritis and endometritis) and metabolic disorders (ruminal acidosis and ketosis) has been discussed. Moreover, various non-antibiotic microbial therapies including phage therapy, prebiotics and probiotics have been examined as potential means to reduce disease-associated dysbiosis. In general, this review highlights the importance of the microbiome in maintenance of health in cattle and its potential in alleviating bovine diseases, with an aim to enhance cattle health and production.
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