Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

An Updated Review of the Invasive Aedes albopictus in the Americas; Geographical Distribution, Host Feeding Patterns, Arbovirus Infection, and the Potential for Vertical Transmission of Dengue Virus

Version 1 : Received: 4 September 2021 / Approved: 7 September 2021 / Online: 7 September 2021 (10:38:13 CEST)

How to cite: Garcia-Rejon, J.E.; Navarro, J.C.; Cigarroa-Toledo, N.; Baak-Baak, C.M. An Updated Review of the Invasive Aedes albopictus in the Americas; Geographical Distribution, Host Feeding Patterns, Arbovirus Infection, and the Potential for Vertical Transmission of Dengue Virus. Preprints 2021, 2021090119 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202109.0119.v1). Garcia-Rejon, J.E.; Navarro, J.C.; Cigarroa-Toledo, N.; Baak-Baak, C.M. An Updated Review of the Invasive Aedes albopictus in the Americas; Geographical Distribution, Host Feeding Patterns, Arbovirus Infection, and the Potential for Vertical Transmission of Dengue Virus. Preprints 2021, 2021090119 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202109.0119.v1).

Abstract

The aim of the work was to update the distribution range of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus Skuse in the Americas, review the blood-feeding patterns and compare the minimum infection rate (MIR) of the dengue virus (DENV) between studies of vertical and horizontal transmission. The current dis-tribution of Ae. albopictus encompasses 21 countries in the Americas. Extensive review has been conducted for the blood-feeding patterns of Ae. albopictus. The results suggest that the mosquito is capable of feeding on 16 species of mammals and five species of avian. Humans, dogs, and rats are the most common host. Eight arboviruses with the potential to infect humans and animals have been isolated in Ae. albopictus. In the United States of America (USA), Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Keystone virus, La Crosse Virus, West Nile virus, and Cache Valley virus were isolated in the Asian mosquito. In Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, and Costa Rica, DENV (all serotypes) has been frequently identified in field-caught Ae. albopictus. Overall, the estimated MIR in Ae. albopictus infected with DENV is similar between horizontal (10.95) and vertical transmission (8.28). However, in vertical transmission, there is a difference in the MIR values if the DENV is identified from larvae or adults (males and females emerged from a collection of eggs or larvae). MIR es-timated from larvae is 14.04 and in adults is 4.04. In conclusion, it has to be highlighted that Ae. albopictus is an invasive mosquito with wide phenotypic plasticity to adapt to broad and new areas, it is highly efficient to transmit the DENV horizontally and vertically, it can participate in the inter-endemic transmission of the dengue disease, and it can spread zoonotic arboviruses across forest and urban settings.

Keywords

Asian tiger mosquito; feeding pattern; minimum infection rate; emerging arboviruses; dengue virus

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