Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Spirals and Rings in Barred Galaxies by the ROTASE Model

Version 1 : Received: 11 August 2021 / Approved: 1 September 2021 / Online: 1 September 2021 (10:36:23 CEST)

How to cite: Pan, H. Spirals and Rings in Barred Galaxies by the ROTASE Model. Preprints 2021, 2021090004 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202109.0004.v1). Pan, H. Spirals and Rings in Barred Galaxies by the ROTASE Model. Preprints 2021, 2021090004 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202109.0004.v1).

Abstract

This paper extends the application of the ROTASE model for the formation of spiral arms of disc galaxies, questions and confusions from readers about this model are addressed. The optical trail effect behind the spiral arm rotation is the natural consequence of the model. The morphologies of ring-galaxies are classified into four categories: type I: single ring; type II: 8-shaped double ring; type III: 8-shaped double ring wrapped by a larger outer ring; type IV: single ring without spiral and bar. All four types of ring galaxies can be described by the ROTASE model. The ROTASE model predicts that the false impression of spiral arm rotating ahead of the galactic bar in the galaxy MCG+00-04-051 will change with time, it will look like a normal galaxy with about 30° to 40° bar rotation in the future and the galactic bar ends will look like rotating ahead of the spiral arms with further 10 ° to 15 °bar rotation. The formation of one arm galaxies is due to X-matter at one side of supermassive black hole is much stronger than other side. More evidence is found to support the explanation of the formation and the evolution of the Hoag’s object. The possible evolution of spiral pattern of galaxies is illustrated by UGC 6093. The winding of the Milky Way could be tighter in the future based on the ROTASE model.

Keywords

ROTASE model; formation of spiral arms; X-matter; black hole; matter conversion; hydrogen generation; chain-link; single ring; double rings; ring crossing

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