Preprint Article Version 8 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Fabrication Methods of the Polygonal Masonry of Large Tightly-fitted Stone Blocks with Curved Surface Interfaces in Megalithic Structures of Peru

Version 1 : Received: 2 August 2021 / Approved: 3 August 2021 / Online: 3 August 2021 (14:55:33 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 9 October 2021 / Approved: 14 October 2021 / Online: 14 October 2021 (15:03:47 CEST)
Version 3 : Received: 22 November 2021 / Approved: 24 November 2021 / Online: 24 November 2021 (12:41:27 CET)
Version 4 : Received: 3 February 2022 / Approved: 4 February 2022 / Online: 4 February 2022 (10:33:08 CET)
Version 5 : Received: 7 March 2022 / Approved: 8 March 2022 / Online: 8 March 2022 (10:58:47 CET)
Version 6 : Received: 14 May 2022 / Approved: 16 May 2022 / Online: 16 May 2022 (12:15:55 CEST)
Version 7 : Received: 4 December 2022 / Approved: 5 December 2022 / Online: 5 December 2022 (14:48:24 CET)
Version 8 : Received: 13 March 2023 / Approved: 14 March 2023 / Online: 14 March 2023 (14:19:00 CET)
Version 9 : Received: 2 October 2023 / Approved: 10 October 2023 / Online: 10 October 2023 (05:31:52 CEST)
Version 10 : Received: 19 February 2024 / Approved: 20 February 2024 / Online: 21 February 2024 (05:13:48 CET)

How to cite: Lapshin, R. Fabrication Methods of the Polygonal Masonry of Large Tightly-fitted Stone Blocks with Curved Surface Interfaces in Megalithic Structures of Peru. Preprints 2021, 2021080087. Lapshin, R. Fabrication Methods of the Polygonal Masonry of Large Tightly-fitted Stone Blocks with Curved Surface Interfaces in Megalithic Structures of Peru. Preprints 2021, 2021080087.


The article suggests methods that allow creating the most complicated type of polygonal masonry found in Peru. This masonry type consists of large stone blocks weighing from several hundred kilograms to several tons fitted close to each other almost without a gap between complicated curved surfaces over a large area. The work provides a description of techniques, which apparently were used by builders who arrived from Europe. The techniques under discussion are based on the use of a reduced clay model, 3D-pantograph, topography translator and replicas. The use of the topography translator, reduced clay model and pantograph provides not only the unique appearance and high quality of masonry of large blocks, but also allows to increase the productivity of the builders significantly. As machines coping-scaling three-dimensional objects are known since the beginning of the 18th century, the stone structures under consideration should be approximately dated by this time. The remaining simpler types of polygonal masonry, when the stones are small or the fitted surfaces are almost flat, or the stones contact each other over a small area, or there are significant gaps between the stones, are quite consistent with the well-known methods of stone processing at that time or earlier, and, therefore, they do not require any additional explanations. The Fortress Sacsayhuaman is considered as an example of early star fortresses that has survived to our time. The polygonal structures in Peru, the polygonal Face Towers and polygonal bas-reliefs in Cambodia, symmetrical statues of pharaohs in Egypt are based on the same construction technologies, working methods, tools and technical contrivances. Therefore, with a high probability one can state that all these monuments were created by the same group of architects, sculptors, builders, and could not have appeared before the 17th century.


stone block; polygonal masonry; clay model; pantograph; translator; parallelogram mechanism; replica; chisel; hammer; megalith; star fortress; Inca; Cusco; Ollantaytambo; Machu Picchu; Sacsayhuaman; Peru; polygonal bas-relief; polygonal Face Towers; Angkor; Cambodia; symmetrical statue; pharaoh statue; Ramses; Egypt


Engineering, Mechanical Engineering

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 14 March 2023
Commenter: Rostislav Lapshin
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: Details of the made changes: English was improved throughout the manuscript. Extra descriptions were added to the following sections: 2.1. Clay model shape transfer on a stone billet by means of a 3D-pantograph; 2.2. Pantograph application for fabrication of the polygonal masonry blocks by casting; 2.11.4. Specifics of the topography translator application; 3.1. A general bulge of the front side and a swell in its lower part, bosses, cusps/steps at the triple junctions, polygonal bas-relief facing; 3.3. How to prove it? What should we look for and where? 3.5. Who built this, when, what for and with what funds? 3.7. Phenomenon of the “tired” stones. An additional illustration and several new references were inserted in the manuscript also.

The manuscript in Russian “Способы изготовления полигональной кладки из крупных плотно подогнанных каменных блоков с криволинейными поверхностями сопряжения в мегалитических комплексах Перу” is available in the Supplementary Files.
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