Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Gene Flow and Diversification in Himalopsyche Martynovi Species Complex (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae) In the Hengduan Mountains

Version 1 : Received: 15 July 2021 / Approved: 20 July 2021 / Online: 20 July 2021 (17:10:08 CEST)

How to cite: Deng, X.; Favre, A.; Lemmon, E.M.; Lemmon, A.R.; Pauls, S.U. Gene Flow and Diversification in Himalopsyche Martynovi Species Complex (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae) In the Hengduan Mountains. Preprints 2021, 2021070468 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202107.0468.v1). Deng, X.; Favre, A.; Lemmon, E.M.; Lemmon, A.R.; Pauls, S.U. Gene Flow and Diversification in Himalopsyche Martynovi Species Complex (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae) In the Hengduan Mountains. Preprints 2021, 2021070468 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202107.0468.v1).

Abstract

Background: The Hengduan Mountains are one of the most species–rich mountainous areas in the world. The origin and evolution of such a remarkable biodiversity are likely to be associated with geological or climatic dynamics, as well as taxon-specific biotic processes (e.g., hybridization, polyploidization, etc.). Here, we investigate the mechanisms fostering the diversification of the endemic Himalopsyche martynovi complex, a poorly known group of aquatic insects. Methods: We used multiple allelic datasets generated from 691 AHE loci to reconstruct species and RaxML phylogenetic trees. We selected the most reliable phylogenetic tree to perform network and gene flow analyses. Results: Phylogenetic reconstructions and network analysis identified three clades, including H. epikur, H. martynovi sensu stricto and H. cf. martynovi. Himalopsyche martynovi sensu stricto and H. cf. martynovi present an intermediate morphology between H. epikur and H. viteceki, the closest known relative to the H. martynovi–complex. The gene flow analysis revealed extensive gene flow among these lineages. Conclusion: Our results suggest that H. viteceki and H. epikur are likely to have contributed to the evolution of H. martynovi sensu stricto and H. cf. martynovi via gene flow, and thus, our study provides insights in the diversification process of a lesser–known ecological group, and hints at the potential role of gene flow in the emergence of biological novelty in the Hengduan Mountains.

Subject Areas

Hengduan mountains; Himalopsyche martynovi; gene flow; morphology; phylogeny; speciation; target enrichment

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