: Received: 5 November 2020 / Approved: 6 November 2020 / Online: 6 November 2020 (15:08:42 CET)
: Received: 6 November 2020 / Approved: 9 November 2020 / Online: 9 November 2020 (09:25:09 CET)
Rahimi, N. C-type Lectin CD209L/L-SIGN and CD209/DC-SIGN: Cell Adhesion Molecules Turned to Pathogen Recognition Receptors. Biology2021, 10, 1.
Rahimi, N. C-type Lectin CD209L/L-SIGN and CD209/DC-SIGN: Cell Adhesion Molecules Turned to Pathogen Recognition Receptors. Biology 2021, 10, 1.
C-type lectin CD209/DC-SIGN and CD209L/L-SIGN proteins are distinct cell adhesion and pathogen recognition receptors that mediate cellular interactions and recognize a wide range of pathogens including, viruses such as SARS, SARS-CoV-2, bacteria, fungi and parasites. Pathogens exploit CD209L family proteins to promote infection and evade the immune recognition system. CD209L and CD209 are widely expressed in SARS-CoV-2 target organs and can contribute to infection and pathogenesis. CD209L family receptors are highly susceptible to alternative splicing and genomic polymorphism, which may influence virus tropism and transmission in vivo. The carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) and the neck/repeat region represent the key features of CD209L family proteins, which are also central for their cellular ligand interactions and pathogen recognition. While, the neck/repeat region is involved in oligomeric dimerization, the CRD recognizes the mannose containing structures present on specific glycoproteins including, SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Considering the role of CD209L and the related proteins in diverse pathogen recognition, this review article discusses the recent advances on the cellular and biochemical characterization of CD209 and CD209L and their roles in viral uptake, which has important implications in understanding of host-pathogen interaction, viral pathobiology and vaccine development of SARS-CoV-2.
CD209; L-SIGN; CD209L; D-SIGN; C-type lectin; Cell Adhesion Molecule; C-type lectin domain family 4 member M; CLEC4M; LSECtin; CLEC4G; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19
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