The aim of this study is to provide a detailed strategy for Safe-by-Design (SbD) 3D printed lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device manufacturing, using Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) technology. At first, the applicability of FFF in lab-on-a-chip device development is briefly discussed. Subsequently, a methodology to categorize, identify and implement SbD measures for FFF is suggested. Furthermore, the most crucial health risks involved in FFF processes are examined, placing the focus on the examination of ultrafine particle (UFP) and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emission hazards. Thus, a SbD scheme for lab-on-a-chip manufacturing is provided, while also taking into account process optimization for obtaining satisfactory printed LOC quality. This work can serve as a guideline for the effective application of FFF technology for lab-on-a-chip manufacturing through the safest applicable way, towards a continuous effort to support sustainable development of lab-on-a-chip devices through cost-effective means.
3D printing; lab-on-a-chip; FFF; Safe-by-Design; exposure assessment
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