Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Chromosome Painting in Neotropical Long and Short-Tailed Parrots (Aves, Psittaciformes): Phylogeny and Proposal for a Putative Ancestral Karyotype for Tribe Arini

Version 1 : Received: 9 August 2018 / Approved: 9 August 2018 / Online: 9 August 2018 (20:51:32 CEST)

How to cite: Furo, I.D.O.; Kretschmer, R.; O´Brien, P.C.M.; Pereira, J.; Garnero, A.D.V.; Gunski, R.J.; Ferguson-Smith, M.; de Oliveira, E.H.C. Chromosome Painting in Neotropical Long and Short-Tailed Parrots (Aves, Psittaciformes): Phylogeny and Proposal for a Putative Ancestral Karyotype for Tribe Arini. Preprints 2018, 2018080198 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201808.0198.v1). Furo, I.D.O.; Kretschmer, R.; O´Brien, P.C.M.; Pereira, J.; Garnero, A.D.V.; Gunski, R.J.; Ferguson-Smith, M.; de Oliveira, E.H.C. Chromosome Painting in Neotropical Long and Short-Tailed Parrots (Aves, Psittaciformes): Phylogeny and Proposal for a Putative Ancestral Karyotype for Tribe Arini. Preprints 2018, 2018080198 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201808.0198.v1).

Abstract

Most Neotropical Psittacidae have a diploid number of 2n=70, and a dichotomy in chromosome patterns. Long-tailed species have biarmed macrochromosomes, while short - tailed ones have telo/acrocentric macrochromosomes. However, the use of chromosome painting with chicken and white hawk probes has demonstrated that karyotype evolution in Psittacidae includes a high number of inter/intrachromosomal rearrangements. Hence, to determine the phylogeny of Long and Short-Tailed species, and to propose a putative ancestral karyotype for this group, we constructed homology maps of Pyrrhura frontalis (PFR) and Amazona aestiva (AAE) and compared them to other previously analyzed long-tailed species. Chromosomes were analyzed by conventional staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using whole chromosome paints of G. gallus (GGA) and L. albicollis (LAL). Conventional staining showed a karyotype with 2n=70 in both species, with biarmed macrochromosomes in Pyrrhura frontalis and telo/acrocentric chromosomes in Amazona aestiva. Comparison of the results with the putative avian ancestral karyotype (PAK) showed fusions in P. frontalis of PAK1p/PAK4q (PFR1) and PAK6/PAK7 (PFR6) with a paracentric inversion in PFR6. However, in A. aestiva there was only the fusion between PAK6/7 (AAE7) with a paracentric inversion. Hybridizations with LAL probes confirmed these results. The results indicate that PFR retained a more basal karyotype than Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus (AHY), Ara macao (AMA) and Ara chloropterus (ACH), because these three species show the fusion PAK8/PAK9 that is not seen in PFR. Hence, we suggest that the ancestral karyotype of species with biarmed chromosomes have the fusions PAK1p/PAK4 and PAK6/PAK7 and, additionally, a pericentric inversion of PAK6/PAK7, while the fusion PAK8/PAK9 would have appeared in the common ancestor of Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, Ara macao and Ara chloropterus. However, the species A. aestiva shows a characteristic plesiomorphic trait, since PAK1p/PAK4q and PAK8/9 fusions are absent. Our results base on chromosome rearrangements suggest the classification following the criterium of tail length may no reflect the real phylogenetic history of Neotropical Psittacidae.

Subject Areas

Parrots, Psittaciformes, Psittacidae, Chromosome painting, Phylogeny, Putative Ancestral Karyotype

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