Anatomy and Physiology
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ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0216.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Dual-energy computed tomography; gout; tendon; foot; monosodium urate deposits
Online: 2 June 2023 (14:58:10 CEST)
Objective: To evaluate two different DECT postprocessing protocols for detection of MSU deposits in foot tendons of cadavers with verification by polarizing light microscopy as gold standard.Material and Methods: A total of 40 embalmed cadavers (15 male; 25 female; median age, 82 years; mean, 80 years; range, 52 - 99; SD ± 10.9) underwent DECT to assess MSU deposits in foot tendons.Two postprocessing DECT protocols with different Hounsfield unit (HU) thresholds 150/500 (=established) versus 120/500 (= modified) HU were applied to dual source acquisition with 80 kV for tube A and 140 kV for tube B.Six fresh cadavers (4 male; 2 female; median age, 78; mean, 78,5; range 61 - 95 ) were examined by DECT. Tendon dissection of 2/6 fresh cadavers with positive DECT 120 and negative DECT 150 studies were used to verify MSU deposits by polarizing light microscopy.Results: The tibialis anterior tendon was found positive in 57.5%/100% (DECT 150/120), peroneus tendon in 35%/100%, achilles tendon in 25%/90%, flexor halluces longus tendon in 10%/100%, and tibialis posterior tendon in 12.5%/97.5%. DECT 120 resulted in increased tendon MSU deposit detection, when DECT 150 was negative, with an overall agreement between DECT 150 and DECT 120 of 80 % (P = 0.013). Polarizing light microscope confirmed MSU deposits detected only by DECT 120 in tibialis anterior, achilles, flexor halluces longus and peroneal tendons.Conclusion: The DECT 120 protocol showed a higher sensitivity when compared to DECT 150.
Fri, 19 May 2023
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1435.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder; microbiota; meta-analysis
Online: 19 May 2023 (10:54:34 CEST)
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with high heterogeneity and has a prevalence of 0.7% to 3.2% in children. Gut microbiota are a collection of microorganisms that inhabit in human guts, which can produce various metabolites that affect the homeostasis and functions of nervous and endocrine systems. There are many studies on the relationship between various gut microbiota and ASD, but the alteration pattern of microbial profiles in ASD children is not conclusive. In order to more robustly describe the deregulations of gut microbiota compositions in ASD, a meta-analysis was performed. The related investigations from PubMed, Embase and Web of Science were collected and manually reviewed. By procedure, 26 eligible studies until 2023, with a total of 1021 ASD and 951 typically developed children and adolescents, were included for the meta-analysis. RevMan5.4 was used to assess the overall effect of 8 microbes at the phylum level and 19 microbes at the genus level. Results demonstrated relatively up-regulated abundance of Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Bacteroides, Clostridium, Dorea and Sutterella, and down-regulated abundance of Proteobacteria, Bifidobacterium, Coprococcus, and Akkermansia in ASD children, indicating partly agreement in the ASD-associated microbes, albeit the heterogeneity of ASD.
Tue, 9 May 2023
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0606.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: alcoholic fatty liver; adenosine monophosphate activated kinase; sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c; peroxisome proliferator activated receptor , oxidative stress; cytochrome P450 2E1
Online: 9 May 2023 (08:38:13 CEST)
Alcohol effects on hepatic lipid metabolism through various mechanisms, leading synergistically to an accumulation of fatty acids (FA) and triglycerides. Obesity, as well as, the dietary fat [saturated fatty acids (FA) versus poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)] may modulate the hepatic fat. Alcohol inhibits adenosine monophosphate activated kinase (AMPK). AMPK activates peroxisome proliferators activated receptor a (PPARα) and leads to a decreased activation of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SRABP1c). The inhibition of AMPK, and thus of PPARα results in an inhibition of FAs oxidation. This ß-oxidation is further reduced due to mitochondrial damage induced through cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) driven oxidative stress. Furthermore, the synthesis of FAs is stimulated through an activation of SHREP1. In addition, alcohol consumption leads to a reduced production of adiponectin in adipocytes due to oxidative stress and to an increased mobilization of FAs from adipose tissue and from the gut as chylomicrons. On the other side, the secretion of FAs via very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) from the liver is inhibited by alcohol. Alcohol also affects signal pathways such as early growth response 1 (Egr-1) associated with the expression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF), and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) a key regulator of autophagy. Both have influence the pathogenesis of alcoholic fatty liver. Alcohol-induced gut dysbiosis is contributing to the severity of ALD by increasing metabolism of ethanol in the gut and promoting intestinal dysfunction. Moreover, pathogen associated molecular paterns (PAMPS) via specific Toll-like receptors (TLR) bacterial overgrowth is leading to the translocation of bacteria. Endotoxins, and toxic ethanol metabolites enter the enterohepatic circulation reaching the liver, inducing the activation of the nuclear factor kappa-B (NFB) pathway. Pro-inflammatory cytokines released in the process contribute to inflammation and fibrosis. In addition, cellular apoptosis is inhibited in the favor of necrosis.
Mon, 10 April 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0132.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Fascia; Cell death; Repeatability; Immunohistochemistry; Bonghan duct and corpuscle; Janus Green B
Online: 10 April 2023 (02:59:00 CEST)
Accumulating reports have suggested that an inability to clear dead cells is a cause of inflammation and cancer and that the fascia is associated with cancer metastasis. Novel corpuscle-connected filiform structures (CCFSs) entangled on the fascia of the internal organs of rats were selectively visualized with high repeatability (93%) under vital staining with Janus Green B (JGB). Serial sections of CCFSs stained with haematoxylin and eosin and with Mattson Trichrome were microscopically examined. In parallel, the immunohistochemistry with CD31, Lyve 1, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were also used to investigate the novel properties of the CCFSs. All of the CCFSs enclosed JGB-stained granules, which was verified by the impromptu coupling of stereo and light microscopes and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The functions of the CCFSs were discovered under fluorescence microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy to be implicated in cell death: fragmented DNAs and f-actins with extracellular DNAs. The dead cells in the CCFSs were verified by using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling and TEM. Moreover, the CCFS had a relatively-high concentration of calcium, a main element for cell death in tissue, which was measured in 2-dimensionally images using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. Taken these results, we report for the first time that novel reticular CCFSs are widely entangled on the fascia of the internal organs of rats with the implication for cell death.
Thu, 23 March 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0414.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: information entropy; DNA sequences; patients surviving; leukemia
Online: 23 March 2023 (13:23:45 CET)
The purpose of this study is to provide an accurate formula for calculating entropy for short DNA sequences and to demonstrate how to use it to examine leukemia patient surviving. We used IDIBAPS leukemia patient’s data base with 117 anonymized records. The generalized form of the Robust Entropy Estimator (EnRE) for short DNA sequences was proposed and key EnRE futures was showed. The Survival Analysis has been done using statistical package IBM SPSS. Entropy EnRE were calculated for leukemia patients for two samples: A. 2 groups divided by median EnRE and B. 2 groups of patients were formed according to their belonging to 1st and 4th quartiles of EnRE. The result of survival analysis are statistically significant: A. p < 0.05; B. p < 0.005. The death hazard for a patient with EnRE below median is 1.556 times that of a patient with EnRE over median and that the death hazard for a patient of 1st quartile (lowest EnRE) is 2.143 times that of a patient of 4th quartile (highest EnRE). The transition from median to quartile patients’ groups with more EnRE differentiation confirmed the unique significance of the entropy of DNA sequences for leukemia patients surviving.
Mon, 29 March 2021
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Meniscal injury; anatomical basis; physiological changes; biochemical changes
Online: 29 March 2021 (13:10:31 CEST)
The meniscus is a meniscus-shaped fibrocartilage tissue located between the femur and tibia，it is mainly composed of meniscus cells and related extracellular matrix.The synovial limbus area of the knee joint capsule near the meniscus is divided into red areas with rich blood vessels and white areas with less blood supply according to the distribution of blood vessels,there is a transition zone called the red and white zone between the two;Red zone has better self-repair ability,The injury in this area can be treated by conservative treatment or surgical suture;Once the white area of the meniscus is torn and involves the free edge area,It is often necessary to partially remove the damaged meniscus.When most of the entire meniscus is severely torn and involved,not only the course of the disease is very long, but it cannot be repaired by sutures,Often a subtotal or total meniscus resection is required,whether it is a partial meniscus resection, a subtotal meniscus resection or a complete resection.In the later period, it may cause quadriceps atrophy and osteoarthritis (OA）.OA is a refractory multi-system disease,involve the patient’s peripheral joints,it has high disability and teratogenicity, and is very harmful to human health.Chondrocyte pyrolysis, degradation, and inflammation play a vital role in the destruction of OA articular cartilage and chondrocyte apoptosis.Meniscus stem cells have strong proliferation and differentiation ability,has become one of the hot spots in the field of meniscus repair,this article studies the role of meniscal stem cells in the development of OA.
Mon, 1 February 2021
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0630.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Tug of war; anthropometrics; physical capacities; physiology; injuries; kinetics
Online: 1 February 2021 (10:28:03 CET)
Tug-of-war (TOW) is an internationally played activity including professional and amateur athletes and defined as early (4000 years ago as a rope less version) in the artwork on Egyptian tomb engravings and is played as per the rules laid out by TWIF, which has 73 member countries and administrative headquarters in the USA. Typically, two teams of “pullers” participate and apply enormous contra directional forces on the pulling rope. Originally, two types of competition are used: knockout and points. This narrative review describes the scientific state of the art about of TOW. For the best of the author’s knowledge no previous information has been published.
Thu, 1 October 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0011.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Anterior spinal artery syndrome; Spinal cord Infarction; Aortic insufficiency; Aortic surgery; Spinal shock; Quadriplegia; Bowel-bladder incontinence
Online: 1 October 2020 (09:15:58 CEST)
As an uncommon cause of spinal cord infarction, anterior spinal cord syndrome can manifest with motor paralysis, loss of pain, and temperature sensation distal to the site of the lesion. The main pathogenesis of this syndrome is the disruption of blood flow in the anterior spinal artery. Mortality and morbidity differ with the etiology of the syndrome. So knowing the etiology of blood flow disruption is essential for patient management. This review article highlights the important clinical manifestation of Anterior spinal artery syndrome. Also describes etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prognosis, possible management, and complications.