ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0002.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: trastuzumab; trastuzumab resistance; HER2; breast cancer; proteomic analysis; metabolic reprogramming.
Online: 3 April 2023 (02:19:25 CEST)
The antibody Trastuzumab (Tz) targeting ERBB2 has improved the prognosis of patients with breast cancer (BCa) that overexpress this receptor. Resistance to Tz negatively impacts prognosis. Several mechanisms have been reported to cause Tz resistance. The objective of this study was to identify common mechanisms in in vitro models of acquired BCa Tz resistance. In particular, we used three widely available ERBB2+ BCa cell lines adapted to grow in Tz. We performed several analyses to address possible changes in phenotype, proliferation, and ERBB2 membrane expres-sion common to the three Tz-R cell lines compared to wt, but none was found. High-resolution mass spectrometry analysis identified, instead, a common set of differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in Tz-R vs. wt cells. Furthermore, bioinformatic tools revealed that all three Tz-R cell models shared a modulation of proteins involved in the metabolism of lipids, organophosphate biosynthetic process, and macromolecule methylation. Ultrastructural analysis confirmed altera-tion of lipid droplets in resistant cells. Our data strongly support the hypothesis that complex metabolic adaptation, including lipid metabolism, protein phosphorylation, and possibly chro-matin remodeling, may fuel Tz resistance. The identification of a common set of 10 DEPs in all three TZ-resistant cell lines may provide novel targets for therapeutic intervention.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0043.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: ADC; HM2-MMAE; (vic-)trastuzumab duocarmazine; Trastuzumab deruxtecan; TAK-522; Trastuzumab emtansine; anti-HER2/PBD-MA; HER2 low; HER2-low; mode of action
Online: 4 February 2019 (17:01:31 CET)
Since the discovery of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) as an oncogenic driver in a subset of breast cancers and the development of HER2 directed therapies, the prognosis of HER2 amplified breast cancers has increased meaningfully. Next to monoclonal anti-HER2 antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors, the antibody-drug conjugate T-DM1 is a pillar of targeted treatment of advanced HER2-positive breast cancers. Currently, several HER2 directed antibody-drug conjugates are under clinical investigation for HER2 amplified but also HER2 expressing but not amplified breast tumors. In this article, we review the current preclinical and clinical evidence of the investigational drugs A166, ALT-P7, ARX788, DHES0815A, DS-8201a, RC48, SYD985, MEDI4276 and XMT-1522.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0441.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: HER2; neoadjuvant; pathologic complete response; trastuzumab
Online: 28 December 2021 (09:58:26 CET)
Background: We aimed to identify overexpressed genes or related pathways associated with good responses to anti-HER2 therapy and to suggest a model for predicting drug response in neoadjuvant therapy with trastuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer patients. Methods: We recruited 64 women with breast cancer and categorized them into three groups according to anti-HER2 therapy response. RNA from twenty core needle biopsy paraffin-embedded tissues and four cultured cell was extracted, reverse transcribed, and subjected to microarray. The obtained data were analyzed using Gene Ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and database for annotation, visualization, and integrated discovery. Results: In total, 6,656 genes differentially expressed between trastuzumab-susceptible and trastuzumab-resistant cell lines (3,224 upregulated and 3,432 downregulated). Expression changes in 34 genes in several pathways were found to be related to the response to trastuzumab-containing treatment, interfering with adhesion to other cells or tissues (focal adhesion) and regulating extracellular matrix interactions and phagosome action. Thus, decreased tumor invasiveness and enhanced drug effects might be the mechanisms explaining the better drug response in complete response group. Conclusions: This multigene assay-based study provides insights into breast cancer signal transduction and the possible prediction of treatment response to targeted therapies such as trastuzumab.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0371.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: biosymilars; metastatic breast cancer; trastuzumab; cost; her2; PTH
Online: 25 July 2022 (10:05:29 CEST)
Background: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) overexpression can be found in 15-20% of breast cancers, and it strongly correlates with aggressive clinical behavior and adverse prognosis. The first-line treatment for HER-2 positive metastatic breast cancers is the combination of trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and taxane (PTH). ABP 980 is a biosimilar of the innovator trastuzumab and is characterized by highly comparable effectiveness. Methods: The group of 61 patients with HER-2 positive MBC received biosimilar ABP 980 plus pertuzumab and docetaxel from November, 18, 2018 to December, 24, 2019. The response to therapy, overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), metastases, and adverse effects among patients were determined and analyzed. Results: Initially, 42 women responded partially to the treatment and their median PFS was 27 months. Median PFS for the whole group was 18 months. Cardiotoxicity of treatment was noticed in all patients in the form of the reduction in left ventricular ejection fraction but only in 2 cases, it was the reason for withdrawing from therapy. Conclusion: Biosimilar ABP 980 is registered in the same indications as the innovator trastuzumab and their effectiveness, as well as side effects, are comparable. The costs of biosimilar make the therapy more accessible and thus more patients with MBC around the world can receive relevant treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0676.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Trastuzumab; Pertuzumab; HER2; Binding Free Energy; PRODIGY; Size Exclusion Chromatography
Online: 9 June 2023 (07:01:32 CEST)
The binding affinity of trastuzumab and pertuzumab to HER2 has been studied using both experimental and in-silico methods. The experiments were conducted using the antibodies in their complete IgG form, as used in clinical therapy, and the extracellular domain of the HER2 protein in solution. This approach provides a precise, reproducible, and reliable view of the interaction between them in physiological conditions. Dynamic light scattering and size exclusion chromatography coupled with tetra detection were utilized to characterize the protein complexes, measure their concentrations, and calculate the equilibrium free binding energy, ΔGbind. In addition, PRODIGY, a QSAR-like model with excellent predictive ability, was employed to obtain in-silico ΔGbind estimations. The results obtained indicate that pertuzumab exhibits a slightly higher binding affinity to HER2 than trastuzumab. The difference in binding affinity was explained based on the contribution of the different interfacial contact (IC) descriptors to the ΔGbind value estimated by the PRODIGY model. Furthermore, experiments revealed that the pertuzumab IgG antibody binds preferentially to two HER2 proteins, one per Fab fragment, while trastuzumab mainly forms a monovalent complex. This finding was interpreted based on a geometrical model that identified steric crowding in the trastuzumab-HER2 complex as compared to the pertuzumab-HER2 complex.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0545.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: trastuzumab, HER2, extracellular vesicles, breast cancer, proteomic analysis, immunoelectron microscopy, TOP1, CD63, mitochondria.
Online: 24 February 2021 (11:38:41 CET)
Cancers overexpressing the ERBB2 oncogene are aggressive and associated with a poor prognosis. Trastuzumab is a ERBB2 specific recombinant antibody employed for the treatment of these diseases since it blocks ERBB2 signaling causing growth arrest and survival inhibition. While the effects of Trastuzumab on ERBB2 cancer cells are well known, those on the extracellular vesicles released from these cells are scarce. This study focused on ERBB2+ breast cancer cells and aimed to establish what type of EVs they release and whether Trastuzumab affects their morphology and molecular composition. To these aims, we performed immunoelectron microscopy, immunoblot, and high-resolution mass spectrometry analyses on EVs purified by differential centrifugation of culture supernatant. Here we show that EVs released from ERBB2+ breast cancer cells are polymorphic in size and appearance, and that ERBB2 is preferentially associated with large (120 nm) EVs. Moreover, we report that Tz induces the expression of a specific glycosylated 50 kDa isoform of the CD63 tetraspanin and modulates the expression of 51 EVs proteins, including TOP1. As these proteins are functionally associated with organelle organization, cytokinesis, and response to lipids, we suggest that Tz may influence these cellular processes in target cells at distant sites via modified EVs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0932.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: gastric cancer; HER2; immunotherapy; PD-1/PD-L1; antibody-drug conjugate; chemotherapy; trastuzumab; novel therapies; clinical trials
Online: 13 June 2023 (11:15:24 CEST)
Gastric cancer is an aggressive disease with increasing global incidence in recent years. Human epidermal growth receptor 2 (HER2) is overexpressed in approximately 10-20% of gastric cancers. The implementation of targeted therapy against HER2 as part of the standard of care treatment in metastatic disease has improved the prognosis of this subset of patients. However, gastric cancer still has high mortality rates and urgently requires new treatment strategies. The combination of immunotherapy with HER2-targeted therapies has shown synergistic effects in preclinical models, being the rationale behind exploring this combination in clinical trials in locally advanced and metastatic settings. Additionally, the irruption of antibody-drug conjugates and other novel HER2-targeted agents has led to the development of numerous clinical trials showing promising results. This review presents the molecular mechanisms supporting the use of HER2-targeted drugs in combination with immunotherapy and provides an overview of the therapeutic scenario of HER2-positive disease. We focus on the role of immunotherapy but also summarize emerging therapies and combinations under clinical research that may change the standard treatment in HER-2 positive disease in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0205.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: antibody coating; proximity-enhanced reaction; immunoglobulins; IgG; protein A; protein G; bio-interaction; immunoprecipitation; pull-down assay; immunocapture; stabilization; yield; regeneration; nanoparticles; microparticles; biochips; immunosensor; photochemical crosslinker; click chemistry; herceptin; trastuzumab
Online: 18 April 2019 (07:55:11 CEST)
Crosslinking of proteins for their irreversible immobilization on surfaces is a proven and popular method. However, many protocols lead to random orientation and the formation of undefined or even inactive by-products. Most concepts to obtain a more targeted conjugation or immobilization requires the recombinant modification of at least one binding partner, which is often impractical or prohibitively expensive. Here a novel method is presented, which is based on the chemical preactivation of Protein A or G with selected conventional crosslinkers. In a second step, the antibody is added, which is subsequently crosslinked in the Fc part. This leads to an oriented and covalent immobilization of the immunoglobulin with a very high yield. Protocols for Protein A and Protein G with murine and human IgG are presented. This method may be useful for the preparation of columns for affinity chromatography, immunoprecipitation, antibodies conjugated to magnetic particles, permanent and oriented immobilization of antibodies in biosensor systems, microarrays, microtitration plates or any other system, where the loss of antibodies needs to be avoided, and maximum binding capacity is desired. This method is directly applicable even to antibodies in crude cell culture supernatants, raw sera or protein-stabilized antibody preparations without any purification nor enrichment of the IgG. This new method delivered much higher signals as a traditional method and, hence, seems to be preferable in many applications.