BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0275.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; ARDS; PEEP; mechanical ventilation; transpulmonary pressure
Online: 16 April 2020 (13:24:29 CEST)
With the emergence of COVID-19 we are confronted with a new clinical picture of acute respiratory distress syndrome in the intensive care unit. In the majority of patients, the respiratory mechanics are very different from the “normal” ARDS patient. We measured transpulmonary pressure and dead space ventilation to assess the effects of high and low PEEP levels on lung compliance and ventilation-perfusion mismatching. Advanced respiratory mechanics were assessed in 14 patients. Compared to ARDS patients, lung compliance was relatively high (61 ± 5 mL/cmH2O). COVID-19 patients had high dead space ventilation and gas exchange impairment (Bohr 52 ± 3%; Enghoff modification 67 ± 2%; ventilatory ratio 2.24 ± 0.23). we show that higher PEEP levels decrease lung compliance and in most cases increase dead space ventilation, indicating that high PEEP levels probably cause hyperinflation in patients with COVID-19. We suggest using prone position for an extended period of time, and apply lower PEEP levels as much as possible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0053.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome; Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome; transpulmonary thermodilution; pulmonary edema; Andes virus
Online: 5 August 2019 (07:48:43 CEST)
Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is characterized by capillary leak, pulmonary edema (PE) and shock that leads to death in up to 40% of patients. Treatment is supportive, including mechanical ventilation (MV) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Hemodynamic monitoring is critical to titrate therapy and to decide ECMO support. Transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD) provides hemodynamic and PE data that has not been systematically used to understand HCPS pathophysiology. We identified 11 HCPS patients monitored with TPTD; 5 on MV, 3 on ECMO. We analyzed 133 measurements to describe the hemodynamic pattern and its association to PE. The main findings were reduced stroke volume, global ejection fraction (GEF) and preload parameters associated to increased extravascular lung water and pulmonary vascular permeability compatible with hypovolemia, myocardial dysfunction and increased permeability PE. Lung water correlated positively with heart rate (HR, r=0.20) and negatively with mean arterial pressure (r=-0.27) and GEF (r=-0.36), suggesting that PE is linked to hemodynamic impairment. Pulmonary vascular permeability correlated positively with HR (r=0.31) and negatively with cardiac index (r=-0.49), end-diastolic volume (r=-0.48) and GEF (r=-0.40), suggesting that capillary leak contributes to hypovolemia and systolic dysfunction. In conclusion, TPTD data suggests that in HCPS patients, increased permeability leads to PE, hypovolemia and circulatory impairment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0046.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome; Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; transpulmonary thermodilution; high volume hemofiltration; Andes Hantavirus
Online: 5 July 2020 (05:24:11 CEST)
Background: Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) has a high lethality. About two-thirds of the severe cases may be rescued by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). However, about half of the patients supported by ECMO suffer major complications. High volume hemofiltration (HVHF) is a depurative extracorporeal support that provides homeostatic balance allowing hemodynamic stabilization in some critically ill patients. Methods: We implemented HVHF prior to ECMO consideration in the last five severe HCPS patients requiring mechanical ventilation and vasoactive drugs admitted to our intensive care unit. Patients were considered HVHF-responders if ECMO was avoided and nonresponders if ECMO support was needed. Results: The first two patients required ECMO, while the last three did not. Patients had a maximum serum lactate of 8.4 [4.3-14] mMol/L and a lowest cardiac index of 1.76 [1.45-2.9] L/min/m2. Nonresponders were connected later to HVHF, displayed progressive tachycardia and decreasing stroke volume. The opposite was true for HVHF-responders who also received targeted-HVHF compounded by aggressive hyperoncotic albumin, sodium bicarbonate and calcium supplementation plus ultrafiltration to avoid fluid overload. All patients survived, but one of the ECMO patients suffered a vascular complication. Conclusion: HVHF may contribute to support severe HCPS patients avoiding the need for ECMO in some of them. Early connection and targeted-HVHF may increase the chance of success.