ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0650.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: bidirectional endoscopy; children; propofol; patient time requirements
Online: 8 June 2023 (14:07:20 CEST)
The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of propofol-based sedation and midazo-lam sedation in same-day bidirectional endoscopy (BDE) in children. The charts of children (≤15 years old) who had undergone same-day BDE were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic data, indications, sedatives and their dosages, clinical outcomes, endoscopic findings, adverse events, and patient time requirements were compared in cases with propofol-based and midazolam se-dation. A total of 91 children [51 boys, mean age 13 years (range 9-15)] were enrolled. Propofol alone or in combination with midazolam and/or pentazocine was given in 51 (propofol-based sedation group) while midazolam alone or in combination with pentazocine was given in 40 (midazolam sedation group). The mean doses of propofol, midazolam and pentazocine were 96 mg (range 40–145 mg), 4.1 mg (range 3–5 mg) and 7.5 mg in the propofol group while the mean doses of midazolam and pentazocine were 6.2 mg (range 4–10 mg) and 15 mg in the midazolam group, respectively. The total procedure times and endoscopic findings between the two groups were similar, but the median patient time requirement in the propofol group was significantly shorter than that of the midazolam group (7.3 h vs. 8.4 h, P<0.001). No adverse events occurred in either group. Propofol-based sedation shortened patient time requirements in same-day BDE compared with midazolam sedation in children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0136.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: acute toxicity; cardiovascular depression; intravenous lipid emulsion; propofol; rat model; respiratory depression
Online: 23 October 2018 (09:34:43 CEST)
Abstract: Background and objective: Propofol is an anesthetic agent that is frequently used in anesthesia induction, maintenance and sedation. Propofol has severe side effects such as hypotension, bradycardia and respiratory depression. Although propofol is commonly used, there is no known antidote for its toxic effects. An approach to prevent toxic effects of propofol would be beneficial. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) therapy in the prevention of depressive effects of propofol on cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Materials and methods: Twenty-eight Sprague-Dawley adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. The saline-administered group was determined as the Control group. The second group was administered propofol (PP group); the third group was administered ILE (ILE group), and the fourth was administered propofol with ILE therapy (ILE+PP group). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), Diastolic blood pressure (DBP), Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), Respiratory rate (RR), Heart rate (HR) and mortality were recorded at 10 points during 60 minutes. A repeated measures linear mixed-effect model with unstructured covariance was used to compare the groups. Results: In the PP group, SBP, DBP, MAP, RR and HR levels were declining steadily; all rats in this group died after 60 minutes. In the ILE+PP group, after a while, the decreased SBP, DBP, MAP, RR and HR levels increased SBP, DBP, MAP, RR and HR levels of the Propofol group were found to be significantly lower than those of the other groups (p<0.01). The mortality rate was 100% (surviving period, 60 min) for the PP group, whereas 0% for the ILE, ILE+PP and Control groups. Conclusion: Our results suggest that undesirable side effects that can be seen after propofol application such as hypotension, bradycardia and respiratory depression might be prevented by using ILE therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1059.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Propofol; Psychological intervention; Painless colonoscopic colonic polypectomy EMR; Pain
Online: 18 October 2023 (03:10:38 CEST)
Objective: To evaluate the effect of propofol combined with psychological intervention on pain and emotional evaluation in painless colonoscopic colonic polypectomy patients undergoing endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR).Methods: A total of 80 patients who underwent painless colonoscopic colonic polypectomy with EMR treatment between June 2020 and June 2022 were selected in order of admission and divided into two groups. The control group received conventional analgesia, while the observation group received propofol combined with psychological intervention. Pain visual analog scale (VAS) and emotional scale were used to evaluate pain and emotions in both groups of patients. Adverse reactions and clinical efficacy were also compared between the two groups.Results: The two groups of patients were generally comparable with no significant differences (P > 0.05). The VAS score in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05), and the emotional scale score was also improved compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The number of patients with adverse reactions in the observation group was less than that in the control group. The clinical effective rate in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05).Conclusion: Propofol combined with psychological intervention can effectively alleviate pain and improve emotional status in painless colonoscopic colonic polypectomy patients undergoing EMR treatment, thereby increasing the comfort and success rate of the surgery. The number of patients with adverse reactions in the observation group was less than that in the control group, and the clinical effective rate in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0191.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: nephrectomy; acute kidney injury; chronic kidney disease; sevoflurane; desflurane; propofol
Online: 19 August 2019 (03:47:48 CEST)
The association between the choice of general anesthetic agents and the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) and long-term renal function after nephrectomy has not yet been evaluated. We reviewed 1087 cases of partial or radical nephrectomy. The incidence of postoperative AKI, new-onset chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3a and CKD upstaging were compared between different general anesthetic agent groups: propofol, sevoflurane, and desflurane. Four different propensity score analyses were performed to minimize confounding for each pair of comparison (propofol vs sevoflurane; propofol vs desflurane; sevoflurane vs desflurane; propofol vs volatile agents). Study outcomes were compared before and after matching. Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis was performed to compare renal survival determined by the development of CKD stage 3a between groups up to 36 months after nephrectomy before and after matching. Propofol was associated with a lower incidence of AKI, CKD upstaging and a higher three-year renal survival after nephrectomy compared to sevoflurane or desflurane group after matching (AKI: propofol 23.2% vs. sevoflurane 39.5%, P=0.004, vs. desflurane 34.3%, P=0.031; CKD upstaging: propofol 27.2% vs. sevoflurane 58.4%, P<0.001, vs. desflurane 48.6%, P=0.017; Log-rank test propofol vs. sevoflurane P<0.001, vs. desflurane P=0.015). Propofol was also associated with a lower incidence of new-onset CKD after nephrectomy compared to sevoflurane after matching (P<0.001). However, there were no significant differences between sevoflurane and desflurane. In conclusion, propofol, compared to volatile agents, may be the reasonable choice of general anesthetic agent for nephrectomy to attenuate postoperative renal dysfunction. Randomized prospective trials are warranted to test this hypothesis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0040.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Anesthetic drugs and techniques, opioids, propofol, volatile agent, breast cancer, cancer recurrence, Biomarkers, miRNA.
Online: 1 June 2021 (15:06:42 CEST)
This document summarizes the evidence currently available about the effects of the anesthetic agents and techniques used in primary cancer surgery and long-term oncologic outcomes, and the biomolecular mechanisms involved in their interaction..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling; propofol; low cardiac output; pharmacokinetics; neonate; developmental pharmacology; asphyxia; hypothermia; pediatrics; pharmacokinetics
Online: 8 August 2022 (06:12:36 CEST)
Background: pathophysiological changes like low cardiac output (LCO) impact pharmacokinetics, but its extent may be different throughout pediatrics compared to adults. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling enables further exploration. Methods: A validated propofol model was used to simulate the impact of LCO on propofol clearance across age groups using the PBPK platform, Simcyp® (version 19). The hepatic and renal extraction ratio of propofol was then determined in all age groups. Subsequently, dose explorations were conducted under LCO conditions, targeting a 3 µg/mL (80-125%) propofol concentration range. Results: Both hepatic and renal extraction ratios increased from neonates, infants, children to adolescents and adults. The relative change in clearance following CO reductions increased with age, with the least impact of LCO in neonates. The predicted concentration remained within the 3 µg/mL (80-125%) range under normal CO and LCO (up to 30%) conditions in all age groups. When CO was reduced by 40-50%, a dose reduction of 15% is warranted in neonates, infants and children, 25% in adolescents and adults. Conclusions: PBPK driven, the impact of reduced CO on propofol clearance is predicted to be age-dependent, proportionally greater in adults. Consequently, age group specific dose reductions for propofol are required in LCO conditions.