Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: count data distribution; goodness of fit; overdispersion; underdispersion
Online: 4 December 2020 (12:00:25 CET)
A new discrete distribution for count data called extended biparametric Waring (EBW) distribution is developed. Its name is related to the fact that, in a specific configuration of its parameters, it can be seen as a biparametric version of the univariate generalized Waring (UGW) distribution, a well-known model for the variance decomposition into three components: randomness, liability and proneness. Unlike the UGW distribution, the EBW can model both overdispersed and underdispersed data sets. In fact, the EBW distribution is a particular case of a UWG distribution when its first parameter is positive; otherwise, it is a particular case of a Complex Triparametric Pearson (CTP) distribution. Hence, this new model inherits most of their properties and, moreover, it helps to solve the identification problem in the variance components of the UGW model. We compare the EBW with the UGW by a simulation study, but also with other over and underdispersed distributions through the Kullback-Leibler divergence. Additionally, we have carried out a simulation study in order to analyse the properties of the maximum likelihood parameter estimates. Finally, some application examples are included which show that the proposed model provides similar or even better results than other models, but with fewer parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0065.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: generalized estimating equations; overdispersion; poisson; spatio-temporal; Leishmaniasis
Online: 13 March 2017 (09:30:11 CET)
This paper is motivated by spatio-temporal pattern in the occurrence of Leishmaniasis in Afghanistan and the relatively high number of zero counts. We hold the view that correlations that arise from spatial and temporal sources are inherently distinct. Our method decouples these two sources of correlations, there are at least two advantages in taking this approach. First, it circumvents the need to inverting a large correlation matrix, which is a commonly encountered problem in spatio-temporal analyses. Second, it simplifies the modelling of complex relationships such as anisotropy, which would have been extremely difficult or impossible if spatio-temporal correlations were simultaneously considered. We identify three challenges in the modelling of a spatio-temporal process: (1) accommodation of covariances that arise from spatial and temporal sources; (2) choosing the correct covariance structure and (3) extending to situations where a covariance is not the natural measure of association. Moreover, because the data covers a period that overlaps with the US invasion of Afghanistan, the high number of zero counts may be the result of no disease incidence or lapse of data collection. To resolve this issue, a model truncated at zero built on a foundation of the generalized estimating equations was proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0098.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: ecological niche model; environment; overdispersion; negative binomial; leishmaniasis; infectious disease
Online: 27 September 2016 (10:17:31 CEST)
Leishmaniasis is the third most common vector-borne disease and a very important protozoan infection. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the most common types of leishmaniasis infectious diseases with up to 2 million occurrences of new cases each year worldwide. A dynamic transmission multivariate time series model was applied to the data to account for overdispersion and evaluate the effects of three environmental layers as well as seasonality in the data. Furthermore, ecological niche modeling was used to investigate the geographical suitable conditions for cutaneous leishmaniasis using temperature, precipitation and altitude as environmental layers, together with the leishmaniasis presence data. A retrospective analysis of the cutaneous leishmaniasis spatial data in Afghanistan between 2003 and 2009 indicates a steady increase from 2003 to 2007, a small decrease in 2008, then another increase in 2009. An upward trend and regularly repeating patterns of highs and lows was observed related to the months of the year which suggests seasonality effect in the data. Two peaks were observed in the disease occurrence-- January to March and September to December -- which coincide with the cold period. Ecological niche modelling indicates that precipitation has the greatest contribution to the potential distribution of leishmaniasis.