SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0044.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: drill; gorilla; mandrill; nonhuman primates; papio; stress
Online: 3 June 2022 (10:22:01 CEST)
The aim of this study was to compare left and right osseous orbit forms in two different Catarrhini primate genera using geometric morphometric techniques. The analysis was carried out on 20 well-preserved skulls from gorilla (Gorilla gorilla, n=10) and papios (drill [Mandrillus leucophaeus, n=3] and mandrill [M. sphinx, n=7]) from animals kept in zoo, which were photographed in their frontal norm. A set of 4 sagittal landmarks on the face and 23 semilandmarks on each orbita contour were used. According to results, right and left orbitas were similar in size but not in shape, appearing to be significative for individual-by-side interaction (fluctuating asymmetry). It is supposed this due to a developmental instability due to captivity life. Fluctuating asymmetry was clearly higher among gorillas, seeming logical that hominoidea primates suffering in captivity is higher than among cercopithecids (papios and mandrills). Side directional differences were significative only for papios. We supposed it to be due to a stronger stroke of lateralized mastication as, compared to gorillas, mandibles in papios are longer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0035.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: enterovirus; nonhuman primates; humans; genetic recombination; emergence; Republic of Congo
Online: 2 September 2020 (08:49:42 CEST)
Enteroviruses (EVs) are viruses of the family Picornaviridae that cause mild to severe infections in humans and in several animal species, including nonhuman primates (NHPs). We conducted a survey and characterization of enteroviruses circulating between humans and great apes in the Congo. Fecal samples (N=24) of gorillas and chimpanzees living close to or distant from humans in three Congolese parks were collected, as well as from healthy humans (N=38) living around and within these parks. Enterovirus were detected in 29.4% gorilla and 13.15% human feces, including wild and human-habituated gorillas, local humans and eco-guards. Two identical strains were isolated from two humans come from two remote regions. Their genomes were similar and all genes showed their close similarity to Coxsackieviruses except for 3C, 3D and 5’UTR region where they were most similar to poliovirus 1 and 2, suggesting recombination. Recombination events were found between these strains, poliovirus 1 and 2 and EV-C99. The same EV- C species detected in both humans and apes in different regions suggest a clonal distribution of the virus in Congo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0121.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: alphavirus; vaccine; arbovirus; animal models; nonhuman primates; electrocardiography; ecg; aerosol; encephalitis; equine
Online: 11 October 2019 (03:32:33 CEST)
Eastern (EEEV) and Venezuelan (VEEV) equine encephalitis viruses (EEVs) are related, (+)ssRNA arboviruses that can cause severe, sometimes fatal, encephalitis in humans. EEVs are highly infectious when aerosolized, raising concerns for potential use as biological weapons. No licensed medical countermeasures exist; given the severity/rarity of natural EEV infections, efficacy studies require animal models. Cynomolgus macaques exposed to EEV aerosols develop fever, encephalitis, and other clinical signs similar to humans. Fever is nonspecific for encephalitis in macaques. Electrocardiography (ECG) metrics may predict onset, severity, or outcome of EEV-attributable disease. Macaques were implanted with thermometry/ECG radiotransmitters and exposed to aerosolized EEV. Data was collected continuously, and repeated-measures ANOVA and frequency-spectrum analyses identified differences between courses of illness and between pre-exposure and post-exposure states. EEEV-infected macaques manifested widened QRS-intervals in severely ill subjects post-exposure. Moreover, QT-intervals and RR-intervals decreased during the febrile period. VEEV-infected macaques suffered decreased QT-intervals and RR-intervals with fever onset. Frequency-spectrum analyses revealed differences in the fundamental frequencies of multiple metrics in the post-exposure and febrile periods compared to baseline and confirmed circadian dysfunction. Heart rate variability (HRV) analyses revealed diminished variability post-exposure. These analyses support using ECG data alongside fever and clinical laboratory findings for evaluating medical countermeasure efficacy.