BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1332.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Sars-CoV-2 infection; mycophenolate mofetil, liver transplantation, anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.
Online: 18 May 2023 (10:39:20 CEST)
Background & aims. The fourth dose of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine slightly improved the humoral response among previously seronegative liver transplant (LT) recipients. Mycophenolate (MMF) treatment worsens the vaccination response. This study aimed to evaluate whether temporary MMF interruption might improve immunogenicity of the fourth anti-SARS-CoV-2 BNT16b2 vaccine dose in nonresponsive LT recipients. Methods. LT recipients negative for anti-spike glycoprotein-specific immunoglobulin G receptor-binding domain (s-RBD) antibodies after the third vaccine dose were enrolled. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific T cell responses were measured before and two months following the fourth vaccine dose, and anti-SARS-CoV-2-s-RBD antibodies also 6 months thereafter. MMF was suspended two weeks before and after vaccination. Results. Five LT recipients were enrolled. After a mean of 78 days after vaccination, all patients tested positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2-s-RBD antibodies. The mean antibody titer was 8944 UI/ml. The positive antibody response was maintained during a mean of 193 days of follow-up. Three patients developed a positive T cell response. Two patients (one positive for T cell response) developed a self-limited SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conclusions. Suspending MMF prior to the fourth dose of anti-SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine seems feasible and safe. This procedure could restore vaccine-induced immunogenicity in a large portion of previously nonresponsive LT recipients.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: mycophenolate mofetil; SARS-CoV-2; DHODH; IMPDH2
Online: 21 April 2020 (08:19:11 CEST)
Mycophenolate mofetil was reported to have broad in vitro activity against different viruses and had been tried in combination with IFN-β in treating MERS infection. We tested the pharmacological activity of mycophenolate mofetil using SARS-CoV-2 infected Vero cells. The half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of mycophenolate mofetil against SARS-CoV-2 was 0.47 μM while that of remdesivir was 0.77 μM. Molecular docking results of mycophenolate mofetil to potential target proteins of COVID-19 suggested that mycophenolate mofetil might inhibit SARS-CoV-2 mainly by interacting with DHODH and IMPDH2. Furthermore, mycophenolate mofetil as an immunosuppressant may be a good therapeutic option for the management of hyperinflammation in patients with severe COVID-19. Based on its high potency against SARS-CoV-2 in Vero E6 cells, its good pharmacokinetics and clinical safety profile, mycophenolate mofetil deserves further exploration as potential treatment for COVID-19.