ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0466.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Marijuana, cannabis, opioid epidemic, medical marijuana, opioids, pain management
Online: 19 April 2021 (11:58:52 CEST)
The US opioid overdose epidemic has risen to an all-time high. Prescription opioids often serve as a gateway to illicit opioids which have appreciable overdose potential. Recent investigations have highlighted the efficacy and safety of marijuana-based products for pain management. Providing alternative pain treatment options may help mitigate the opioid epidemic. The distribution of codeine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, morphine, and oxycodone per 100K people and by 3-digit zip codes and overdose rates from 2014 to 2018 in California, which legalized recreational marijuana in 2016, were compared to Texas, where marijuana is functionally prohibited. Drug weights were obtained from the Automation of Reports and Consolidated Orders System and converted to oral morphine milligram equivalents. Overdose data was retrieved from the Centers for Disease Control’s WONDER database. California (-43.7%) and Texas (-27.3%) showed significant reductions in cumulative opioid distribution from 2014 to 2018. Opioid distribution per 100K people decreased -38.9% in California relative to -26.4% in Texas. Opioid and heroin overdoses increased between 1999 and 2019 by +11.6% in California but +272.7% in Texas. This evidence supports marijuana legalization as a mitigating factor to the opioid epidemic and opioid misuse.
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: cananbis sativa; marijuana; hemp; microbiome; endophytes; secondary metabolites; Cannabinoids
Online: 15 January 2020 (07:04:25 CET)
Plants, including Cannabis (Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa) host distinct beneficial microbial communities on and inside their tissues, designated the plant microbiota from the moment that they are planted into the soil as seed. They contribute to plant growth promotion, facilitating mineral nutrient uptake, inducing defense resistance against pathogens, higher yield and modulating plant secondary metabolites. Understanding the microbial partnerships with Cannabis has the potential to affect agricultural practices by improving plant fitness and the production yield of cannabinoids. Much less is known about this beneficial Cannabis-microbe partnership, and the complex relationship between the endogenous microbes associated with various tissues of the plant, particularly, the role that cannabis may play in supporting or enhancing them. This review will focus on Cannabis microbiota studies and the effect of endophytes on the elicitation of secondary metabolites production in Cannabis plants. The aim of this review is to shed light on the importance of Cannabis microbiome and how cannabinoid compounds concentration can be stimulated through symbiotic and or mutualistic relationships with endophytes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0614.v1
Subject: Keywords: Triple-negative breast cancer; cannabinoid; marijuana; cell signalling; medicinal plants
Online: 28 July 2021 (08:56:32 CEST)
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer characterized by the lack of estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors, and HER-2 receptors. Thus, TNBC tumours do not benefit from the current therapies targeting ER or HER-2. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel treatment for this subtype of breast cancer. Marijuana is a common name given to Cannabis plants, a group of plants in the Cannabis genus of the Cannabaceae family. Cannabis plants are among the oldest cultivated crops, traced back at least 12,000 years and are well known for their multi-purpose usage, including medicinal purposes. The main active compounds extracted from Cannabis plants are 21-carbon-containing terpenophenolics, which are referred to as phytocannabinoids. Of these, the tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) group contains highly potent cannabinoids, including delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC) and delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆8-THC), which are the most abundant THCs and are largely responsible for psychological and physiological effects of marijuana. The use of Cannabis plants for medicinal purposes was first recorded in 2337 BC in China, where Cannabis plants were used to treat pains, rheumatism, and gout. Recently, several cannabinoids have been approved for a number of treatments, one of which is the treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy in cancer patients. Furthermore, increasing evidence shows that cannabinoids not only attenuate side effects due to cancer treatment, but might also potentially possess direct antitumor effects in several cancer types, including breast cancer. However, anti-tumour activity of marijuana has been variable in different studies and even promoted tumour growth in some cases. In addition, the mechanisms of cannabinoid action in cancer remain unclear. This review summarizes evidence about the mixed actions of cannabinoids in cancer in general and triple-negative breast cancer in particular.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0418.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cannabidiol; Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol; cancer; nausea; vomiting; pain management; antitumor; marijuana
Online: 24 August 2022 (10:42:56 CEST)
Cannabis has been used as an herbal remedy for thousands of years and recent research indicates promising new uses in medicine. Researchers have been particularly interested in the potential uses of cannabinoids in treating cancer due their ability to regulate cancer-related cell cycle pathways, leading to many beneficial effects such as tumor growth prevention, cell cycle obstruction, and cell death. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge on mechanisms of cannabinoids and their role in treating chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, relieving cancer-associated pain, and obstructing tumor cell growth.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0668.v1
Subject: Keywords: marijuana; medicinal cannabis (MC); chronic pain (CP); cannabidiol (CBD); tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
Online: 26 November 2020 (11:22:28 CET)
Rationale:First discovered in 1990, the endocannabinoid system (ECS) was initially shown to have an intimate relationship with central areas of the nervous system associated with pain, reward, and motivation. Recently, however, the ECS has been extensively implicated in the cardiovascular system with contractility, heart rate, blood pressure, and vasodilation. Emerging data demonstrates modulation of the ECS plays an essential role in cardio metabolic risk, atherosclerosis, and can even limit damage to cardiomyocytes during ischemic events.Patient Concerns:This case describes a 63-year-old male who presented to a primary care physician for a medical cannabis (MC) consult due to unstable angina (UA) not relieved by morphine or cardiac medications; having failed all first- and second-line poly-pharmaceutical therapies. The patient reported frequent, unprovoked, angina and exertional dyspnea.Diagnosis:Having a complex cardiac history, the patient first presented 22 years ago after a suspected myocardial infarction (MI). He re-presented in 2010 and underwent stent placement at that time for inoperable triple-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD) which was identified via percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. UA developed on follow up and, despite medical management over the past 6 years, his UA became progressively debilitating.Interventions and Outcomes:In conjunction with his standard cardiac care, patient had a gradual lessening of UA related pain, including frequency and character, after using an edible form of medical cannabis (MC) (1:1 CBD:THC). Following continued treatment, he ceased long term morphine treatment and describes the pain as no longer crippling. As demonstrated by his exercise tolerance tests, the patient experienced an improved functional capacity and reported an increase in his daily functioning, and overall activity.Lessons:This case uniquely highlights MC in possibly reducing the character, quality, and frequency of UA; while concordantly improving functional cardiac capacity in a patient with CAD. Additional case reports are necessary to verify this.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0766.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Cannabis; marijuana; marihuana; tissue culture; review; regeneration; floral reversion; micropropagation; TDZ; DKW
Online: 30 December 2020 (17:24:27 CET)
The recent legalization of Cannabis sativa L. in many regions has revealed a need for effective propagation and biotechnologies for the species. Micropropagation affords researchers and producers methods to rapidly propagate insect/disease/virus free clonal plants, store germplasm, and forms the basis for other biotechnologies. Despite this need, research in the area is limited due to the long history or prohibitions and restrictions. Existing literature has multiple limitation: many publications use hemp as a proxy for drug-type Cannabis when it is well established that there is significant genotype specificity, studies using drug-type cultivars are predominantly op-timized using a single cultivar, most protocols have not been replicated by independent groups, and some attempts demonstrate a lack of reproducibility across genotypes. Due to culture decline and other problems the multiplication phase of micropropagation (stage 2) has not been fully developed in many reports. This review will provide a brief background on the history and botany of Cannabis as well as a comprehensive and critical summary of Cannabis tissue culture. Special attention will be paid to current challenges faced by researchers, the limitations of existing Cannabis micropropagation studies, and recent developments and future directions of Cannabis tissue culture technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0417.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Recreational substance abuse; drug abuse; marijuana; amphetamine; acute ischemic stroke; risk factors; young adult; NIS; Stroke; Sudden Cardiac Death
Online: 27 September 2022 (09:41:00 CEST)
Background: Substance use continues to be on the rise in the United States and has been linked to new onset cardiovascular (CVDs) and cerebrovascular disorders (CeVDs) leading to hospitalizations. We aimed to study the association of different subtypes of substance use disorders (SUDs) among hospitalized patients, with the different subtypes of CVDs and CeVDs, using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) Database. Additionally, we aimed to assess the odds of hospitalizations with new onset CVDs and CeVDs among patients with different types of SUDs. Methods: A retrospective study of the NIS database (2016-2017) using the ICD-10-CM codes was performed. The hospitalizations with a secondary diagnosis of SUDs were identified. Weighted univariate analysis using the chi-square test and multivariate survey logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate for the incidence, prevalence, and odds of association between vascular events and SUDs. Results: There were a total of 58,259,589 hospitalizations, out of which 21.42% had SUDs. Out of all the hospitalized patients between the age 18-50, more patients had SUDs than not (31.83%, p< 0.0001). This difference existed for all the different subtypes of SUDs including alcohol related disorder (42.61%), amphetamine dependence (76.17% vs 31.83%), cannabis related disorder (75.17%), cocaine related disorders (57.87%), hallucinogen related disorder (82.91%), inhalant related disorders (67.25%), opioid related disorders (52.86%), and nicotine dependence (35.72%). We found a significant association of acute ischemic stroke with amphetamine dependence (OR 1.23, 95%CI 1.14-1.33), cocaine related disorders (1.17, 1.12-1.23) and nicotine dependence (1.42, 1.40-1.43). Similarly, the association of intracerebral hemorrhage was higher with amphetamine dependence (2.58, 2.26-2.93), and cocaine related disorders (1.62, 1.46-1.79). The association of subarachnoid hemorrhage was noted to be higher with amphetamine dependence (1.82, 1.48-2.24) and nicotine dependence (1.47, 1.39-1.55). In terms of association of cardiovascular disorders with SUDs,the patients with myocardial infarction had higher odds of nicotine dependence (1.85, 1.83-1.87) than not, Similarly, the patients with angina pectoris were noted to have a higher association with cocaine related disorders (2.21, 1.86-2.62), and those with atrial fibrillation had a higher association alcohol related disorders (1.14, 1.11-1.17). Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the variability of CVD and CeVD in patients hospitalized for SUD. Findings from our study may help promote increased awareness and early management of these events. Further studies are needed to evaluate specific effects of frequency and dose on the incidence and prevalence of CVD and CeVD in patients with SUD.