ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0748.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Keywords: Brimonidine; Laponite; drug delivery; glaucoma; nanomedicine; monitoring; optical coherence tomography; vitreous; intravitreal.
Online: 30 November 2020 (20:25:24 CET)
Intravitreal injection is the gold standard therapeutic option for posterior segment pathologies, and long-lasting release is necessary to avoid reinjections. There is no effective intravitreal treatment for glaucoma or other optic neuropathies in daily practice, nor is there a non-invasive method to monitor drug levels in the vitreous. Here we show that a glaucoma treatment combining a hypotensive and neuroprotective intravitreal formulation (IF) of brimonidine-Laponite (BRI/LAP) can be monitored non-invasively using vitreous imaging captured with optical coherence tomography (OCT) over 24 weeks of follow-up. Qualitative and quantitative characterization was achieved by analysing the changes in vitreous (VIT) signal intensity, expressed as a ratio of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) intensity. Vitreous hyperreflective aggregates mixed in the vitreous and tended to settle on the retinal surface. Relative intensity and aggregate size progressively decreased over 24 weeks in treated rat eyes as the BRI/LAP IF degraded. VIT/RPE relative intensity and total aggregate area correlated with brimonidine levels measured in the eye. The OCT-derived VIT/RPE relative intensity may be a useful and objective marker for non-invasive monitoring of BRI/LAP IF.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0101.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: age-related macular degeneration; anti-inflammatory agents; dry AMD; geographic atrophy; intravitreal injection; complement inhibitors; neuroprotective agents; non-exudative AMD
Online: 12 February 2019 (11:00:52 CET)
The present review focuses on recent clinical trials that analyze the efficacy of intravitreal therapeutic agents for the treatment of dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), such as neuroprotective drugs, and complement inhibitors, also called immunomodulatory or anti-inflammatory. A systematic literature search was performed to identify randomized controlled trials published prior to January 2019. Patients affected by dry AMD treated with intravitreal therapeutic agents were included. The changes in the correct visual acuity and the reduction in geographic atrophy progression were evaluated. Several new drugs have shown some promising results, including those targeting the complement cascade and agents called neuroprotective. The action potential of the two groups of drugs is to block the complement cascade model for immunomodulating agents, and prevent the degeneration and apoptosis of ganglion cells for the neuroprotectors, respectively. To the best of knowledge, and after extensive studies on the matter, there are still many investigations to be carried out on dry AMD in collaboration between researchers. They will have to identify truly effective molecules, understand the practical potential of pluripotent stem cells, and refine gene therapies. Only in-depth clinical trials will be able to allow the most appropriate and personalized treatments for each dry AMD patient.