SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0044.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: drill; gorilla; mandrill; nonhuman primates; papio; stress
Online: 3 June 2022 (10:22:01 CEST)
The aim of this study was to compare left and right osseous orbit forms in two different Catarrhini primate genera using geometric morphometric techniques. The analysis was carried out on 20 well-preserved skulls from gorilla (Gorilla gorilla, n=10) and papios (drill [Mandrillus leucophaeus, n=3] and mandrill [M. sphinx, n=7]) from animals kept in zoo, which were photographed in their frontal norm. A set of 4 sagittal landmarks on the face and 23 semilandmarks on each orbita contour were used. According to results, right and left orbitas were similar in size but not in shape, appearing to be significative for individual-by-side interaction (fluctuating asymmetry). It is supposed this due to a developmental instability due to captivity life. Fluctuating asymmetry was clearly higher among gorillas, seeming logical that hominoidea primates suffering in captivity is higher than among cercopithecids (papios and mandrills). Side directional differences were significative only for papios. We supposed it to be due to a stronger stroke of lateralized mastication as, compared to gorillas, mandibles in papios are longer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0148.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: operability envelope; SPT installation; drill pipe; ocean conditions; mechanical behavior
Online: 16 June 2019 (11:09:07 CEST)
The article presents a mathematical model to investigate the operability envelopes for subsea production tress (SPT) installation using drill pipe. The finite differential method was used to solve the established governing equations in which the ocean conditions were considered. Based on the evaluations of the ocean wave, ocean current, water depth, specification of drill pipe and SPT weight that might dominate the mechanical behaviors of the pipe, the operability envelopes with permissible ocean conditions for SPT installation were obtained. The results indicate that changes of depths in deep water and SPT weight have few effects on the operation conditions and it would be better to choose smaller pipe to obtain larger permissible ocean conditions during SPT installation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0013.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: nuclear magnetic resonance; dielectric spectroscopy; water-oil mixture; relaxation characteristic; drill cuttings; West Siberia
Online: 1 December 2021 (12:53:32 CET)
The article is devoted to the topical problem of estimating water content in water-oil mixtures and porous media they saturate, according to low-field NMR relaxometry and dielectric spectroscopy. The aim of the research is to theoretically substantiate and experimentally validate the capability of joint interpretation of data from these methods to acquire information on the filtration-volumetric properties of drill cuttings, relaxation characteristics of oil-containing fluids, water/oil ratio in water-oil mixtures and saturated with them drill cuttings in order to control the composition of liquids produced from boreholes. The studies were carried out on samples of cuttings and oils taken from fields in the northern and Arctic regions of the West Siberian oil-and-gas province. Based on the experimental data obtained, we evaluated the water content in the water-oil mixtures, determined the main NMR parameters of the mixtures in terms of properties of the constituent oils, and specified the parameters and shapes of NMR and complex dielectric permittivity spectra. The NMR method was found to be effective in examining high-viscosity and medium-viscosity oils, while the dielectric spectroscopy method – in the study of light oils; their integration allows obtaining reliable data for all the samples under study. We also showed how the shapes of NMR and complex dielectric permittivity spectra depend on the rheological properties of oil belonging to the mixture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0376.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: thermal infrared; reflectance spectroscopy; emissivity; surface roughness; geological sample preparation; hyperspectral; drill core scanning
Online: 17 October 2018 (07:51:17 CEST)
High-resolution laboratory-based thermal infrared spectroscopy is an up-and-coming tool in the field of geological remote sensing. Its spatial resolution allows for detailed analyses at centimeter to sub-millimeter scale. However, this increase in resolution creates challenges with sample characteristics such as grain size, surface roughness and porosity that can influence the spectral signature. This research explores the effect of rock sample surface preparation on the TIR spectral signatures. We applied three surface preparation methods (split, saw and polish) to determine how the resulting differences in surface roughness affects both the spectral shape as well as the spectral contrast. The selected samples are a pure quartz sandstone, a quartz sandstone containing a small percentage of kaolinite, and an intermediate-grained gabbro. To avoid instrument or measurement type biases we conducted measurements on three TIR instruments, resulting in directional hemispherical reflectance spectra, emissivity spectra and bi-directional reflectance images. Surface imaging and analyses were performed with scanning electron microscopy and profilometer measurements. We demonstrate that surface preparation affects the TIR spectral signatures influencing both the spectral contrast as well as the spectral shape. The results show that polished surfaces predominantly display a high spectral contrast while the sawed and split surfaces display up to 25% lower reflectance values. Furthermore, the sawed and split surfaces display spectral signature shape differences at specific wavelengths, which we link to mineral transmission features, surface orientation effects and multiple reflections in fine-grained minerals. Hence, the influence of rock surface preparation should be taken in consideration to avoid an inaccurate geological interpretation.